Science and Technology




Science and Technology

1 min read

The importance of Science and Technology notes for the UPSC exam cannot be overstated. They provide a comprehensive overview of the entire Science and Technology syllabus, ensuring that you cover all the necessary topics and help integrate current developments in science and technology with the static part of the syllabus, which is essential for the UPSC exam. Good notes can help clarify complex concepts and make them easier to understand and remember as well as serve as a quick reference guide for revision, especially when the exam date is approaching.

A strong foundation in science and technology enhances one's ability to approach questions holistically. This article covers all the important Science and Technology Notes for UPSC for both Civil Services Prelims and Mains Exam.

Important Science and Technology Notes for UPSC

Science and Technology (S&T) play a crucial role in contemporary issues and developments worldwide. Staying updated on technological advancements, scientific breakthroughs, and their applications is essential for tackling current affairs questions in the UPSC exam.

UPSC questions are often interdisciplinary, requiring candidates to integrate knowledge from various subjects. Our Science and Technology Notes are regularly updated, well-organized, and tailored to the UPSC exam pattern. They not only help you understand the subject matter but also enable you to apply your knowledge to answer questions effectively in the exam. Here is a list of important Science and Technology Notes for UPSC:

Achievements of India in Science and Technology

Science and Technology in Ancient IndiaHomi Bhabha
AryabhattaSir M Visvesvaraya
SushrutaContributions of Indian to Agriculture
Indian PhysicistsMS Swaminathan
Sir CV Raman and his ContributionsVerghese Kurien - Milkman of India
Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose - Father of Radio ScienceWomen in Science
S ChandrasekharResearch Institutes in India
Satyendra Nath BoseIndian Neutrino Observatory (INO)
Famous Chemistry Scientists of IndiaLIGO India
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar AwardAnusandhan National Research Foundation
CNR RaoIndian Mathematicians
Har Gobind KhoranaSrinivasa Ramanujan

Information and Communication Technology

5G TechnologySupercomputers
6G TechnologyWiFi Technology
Space InternetLAN, WAN and MAN

Space Technology

Types of OrbitGAGAN
Lagrangian PointNAVIC IRNSS
Low Earth OrbitIndian Space Program
Sun Synchronous OrbitGaganyaan Mission
Types of SatelliteMangalyaan
Difference between Geosynchronous and Geostationary orbitShukrayaan 1
Anti-Satellite Missile Test (ASAT)NISAR (NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar Mission)
Space DebrisTop Space Agencies in the World
Geospatial TechnologyHubble space telescope
Remote SensingJames Webb Space Telescope (JWST)
Satellite Launch VehiclesNew Horizon Mission
Rocket PropulsionInternational Space Station
Cryogenic EngineISRO - Indian Space Research Organisation
Reusable Launch VehiclesVikram Sarabhai
Ramjet Vs ScramjetAPJ Abdul Kalam
Vikas EngineGSLV - Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
PSLV - Polar Satellite Launch VehicleLVM3 - GSLV Mk3


Nanotechnology in Medicine
Applications of Nanotechnology in Manufacturing Industry
Nanotechnology in Agriculture (also include Food Processing)
Nanotechnology in Energy and Environmental Conservation


Genetic EngineeringGene Therapy
Genome SequencingBiofilms
Polymerase Chain Reaction - RT-PCR, principles, mechanisms and applicationsAgricultural Biotechnology - Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture
Recombinant DNA Technology - Tools, Process, ApplicationsEnvironmental Biotechnology
RNA Interference Technology - Mechanism, Steps, Applications of RNA Interference TechnologyApplications of Biotechnology in Industry
DNA BarcodingGM Crops
DNA FingerprintingBT Cotton
Applications of Biotechnology in MedicineBT Brinjal
Car T Cell TherapyGM Mustard

Defence Technology

Missiles of indiaDefence Industrial Corridors
Agni MissileSIPRI - India’s Arm Imports
BrahmosS-400 Air Defence System
Indian Ballistic Missile Defence ProgrammeRafale aircraft
Integrated Guided Missile Development ProgrammeSubmarines in India
Defence IndigenisationNuclear Submarines
DRDOProject 75i
HALINS Arihant
Weapons of Mass DestructionNulcear Triad

Nuclear Technology

Nuclear Fission and FusionTokamak
Nuclear Energy in IndiaInternational Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

Emerging Technologies

Web 3.0Cloud Computing
Web 4.0Blockchain Technology
Web 5.0Cryptocurrency
LiFiAugmented Reality
3D printingVirtual Reality
Artificial IntelligenceMetaverse
Machine LearningInternet of Things
Deep LearningSmart Grid
Artificial Neural NetworksDrone Technology - Drones and UAVs
Quantum TechnologyEdge Computing
Quantum EntanglementQuantum Communication
Quantum SupremacyQubit
Quantum ComputingBig Data

Clean Technology

Fuel CellBlue Hydrogen
Hydrogen Fuel CellsSolar Technology - Solar Photovoltaic vs Solar Thermal
Microbial Fuel CellLithium-ion battery
Green HydrogenSolid state battery
National Green Hydrogen MissionBiofuels

Intellectual Property Rights

Traditional Knowledge
National IPR Policy
Evergreening of Patents
Compulsory Licensing
GI Tag

Nobel Prize

Nobel Prize 2021Nobel Prize 2023
Nobel Prize 2022Indian Nobel Prize Winners

How to Prepare Science and Technology for UPSC?

Preparing for the Science and Technology section of the UPSC exam requires a strategic approach. Here’s a guide to help you prepare effectively:

  • Understand the Syllabus: The Science and Technology syllabus for UPSC covers a broad range of topics, including recent developments and their applications in everyday life, achievements of Indians in science & technology, and awareness in fields like IT, space, computers, robotics, biotechnology, and issues related to intellectual property rights.
  • Analyze Previous Years’ Questions: Reviewing previous years’ questions will give you an idea of the types of questions asked and the areas emphasized by UPSC. This can help you focus your studies on the most relevant topics.
  • Build a Strong Foundation: Start with the basics. If needed, revisit school-level science textbooks to build a strong foundation, especially in biology, which is often emphasized more than chemistry and physics.
  • Stay Updated with Current Affairs: Current developments in science and technology are crucial for the UPSC exam. Regularly read newspapers and follow the Science and Technology column in ‘The Hindu’ to stay updated.
  • Use Quality Study Materials: Select quality books and materials for in-depth study. NCERT books for classes 11 and 12 are recommended for biology. There isn’t a single comprehensive book for technology, so complement your reading with reliable online sources.
  • Make Personalized Notes: Creating your own notes can help in better retention and quick revision. Summarise the key points and concepts in your own words.
  • Practice and Revise Regularly: Regular practice through mock tests and revision is essential. This will help you recall information quickly and accurately during the exam.
  • Correlate with Current Affairs: When you spot a new development in science and technology, especially those affecting India, study it thoroughly. Understand its implications and how it relates to the syllabus topics.

By following the above steps, you can prepare for the Science and Technology section of the UPSC exam in a structured and efficient manner. Good luck with your studies!


How to Study Science and Technology for UPSC?

To study Science and Technology for UPSC, begin by building a solid foundation in basic scientific principles and technological concepts. Stay updated on current affairs related to science and technology through reputable sources. Integrate your study with other UPSC subjects, recognizing the interdisciplinary nature of questions. Practice solving previous years' papers to understand the exam's pattern and emphasise real-world applications of scientific knowledge.

What books to read for Science and Technology UPSC?

For Science and Technology in UPSC, refer to NCERT textbooks from Classes 6 to 12 for basic understanding. Supplement with 'Science and Technology' by Ravi Agrahari for in-depth coverage. Stay updated through newspapers like 'The Hindu' and 'Science Reporter.' Additionally, 'Science and Technology' Yellow Book by Vajiram & Ravi can provide valuable insights for UPSC preparation.

Is science and technology important for UPSC Prelims?

Yes, Science and Technology is an important section for the UPSC Prelims. It covers current developments and their applications, which are crucial for a well-rounded understanding of the issues facing the country and the world. This section tests candidates’ awareness of the latest advancements and their implications for India and the global landscape.

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