London Summit and How to Make AI Responsible

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Why in News?

  • The British PM is set to host a summit on the Artificial Intelligence (AI)in London, which will be joined by key world leaders and important figures from leading technology companies. The summit will be focused on ensuring the responsible use of AI.
  • In future, this summit might serve as a significant initial stride towards establishing worldwide regulations for AI that holds great potential but also poses unprecedented risks.

The Geopolitical Significance of the London Summit

  • British PM’s Aspiration to Portray Himself as a Global Leader: Critics argue that part of the British PM’s drive is to boost his status as a global leader, especially considering the likely defeat of the Conservative Party in the upcoming general elections.
  • To Give Britain a Leadership Role in Global AI Governance
    • In the lead-up to the summit, the British PM has expressed his intentions to establish Britain as not only the intellectual centre but also the physical hub for worldwide AI safety regulations.
    • This aligns with the British PM’s overarching goal to position Britain as a dominant force in technology, despite potential scepticism about his rhetoric.
    • However, despite the scepticism, Britain retains its prominent status as one of the world's major technological players.
  • A Reminder of the AI’s Origin in Britain
    • In convening the summit at Bletchley Park, the British PM Sunak is also reminding the world of AI’s origins in Britain.
    • It was at Bletchley Park that early research on AI was pioneered by Alan Turing, who is widely considered as the father of AI.
      • Turing and his team of mathematicians had helped crack Enigma, a German code during World War II, giving the Allies a huge advantage in their military operations.
    • Although the US and China are the leading powers in AI development today, Britain has retained its place as one of the major hubs of AI development in the world. 

Global Efforts to Address the Challenges of Governing AI

  • An Executive Order Issued by the US President
    • Recently, the US President Joe Biden issued an executive order to ensure that America leads the way in seizing the promise and managing the risks of AI.
    • The order further says that it will establish new standards for AI safety and security, protects Americans’ privacy, advances equity and civil rights.
    • It will stand up for consumers and workers, promotes innovation and competition, advances American leadership around the world, etc.
  • EU’s Discussion on a Comprehensive Framework
    • The EU is discussing the promulgation of a framework pertaining to regulating the AI. It could be the world’s first comprehensive framework for regulation.
    • It will define rules to govern the development and use of AI across the European Union.
    • Also, it will involve the setting up of a European Board for AI to audit and administer the new rules.
  • Steps taken by China
    • Last month, China outlined a broad set of principles for international cooperation and global governance of AI.
    • Beijing called for an increase in the voice of developing countries in global AI governance, and ensure equal rights, equal opportunities, and equal rules for all countries in AI development and governance.
    • China also expressed support for UN discussions on establishing an international institution to govern AI, and to coordinate efforts to address major issues concerning international AI development, security, and governance.
  • Establishment of An Advisory Board by UN Secretary-General (UNSG)
    • Recently, the UNSG established an advisory body to examine the risks, opportunities, and international governance of AI.
    • He is of the opinion that AI could supercharge climate action and the efforts to achieve the sustainable development goals that the world has set for itself.
    • He underlined the importance of AI being harnessed responsibly and made accessible to all.
    • He pointed out that the AI expertise today is concentrated in a handful of companies and countries which he warned could deepen global inequalities and turn digital divides into a deep fissure. 

Key Agendas of the London Summit

  • Ensuring the Safe and Beneficial Use of AI Technologies: The core idea is to harness the potential of AI for new knowledge, economic growth, advances in human capabilities, and problem-solving.
  • To Address AI's Dangers and Fears
    • A discussion paper released by the British government highlighted the risks associated with AI, ranging from the spread of disinformation to potential misuse for harmful purposes.
    • The British PM emphasises the need to address these fears directly, assuring people that their safety will be prioritised while seizing the opportunities for a better future that AI can offer.
  • Announcement of an AI Safety Research Institute
    • The British PM is expected to announce the creation of an AI Safety Research Institute.
    • Its primary purpose is to carefully examine, evaluate, and test new AI models to understand their capabilities and potential risks.
    • This initiative aims to ensure that AI technologies are developed and used in a safe manner.

Challenges Before the London Summit

  • Navigating Fault Lines
    • Even the modest agenda of the London summit will have to navigate multiple fault lines in achieving concrete results.
    • The British PM’s focus on safety is to overcome the long-standing fault line between regulation and promotion.
    • While many civil society groups demand outright ban on the development of AI or impose a moratorium, the companies rushing to invest in AI would want to prevent over-regulation that will kill innovation.
  • To Address the Division Over a Clear Definition of Frontier AI
    • There is also a division over how to define frontier AI that the London summit is focused on.
    • Critics say the focus on catastrophic scenarios tend to mask the immediate challenges, such as algorithmic bias, that the current generation of AI technologies present.
  • To Balance the Shift in AI Development Leadership
    • One of the issues that the London summit is discussing is the establishment of an international register of frontier AI models.
    • It will allow governments to assess the risks involved but private companies are unlikely to agree with this proposal.
    • This scenario will bring the summit to one of the core challenges of regulating AI - to address the shift in AI development leadership from government to private sector.
    • In the past, frontier technology development, in nuclear and space, was led by governments. Today, AI development outside China is with large digital corporations.

Conclusion

  • The London Summit, whether it provides precise solutions or not, is set to establish significant benchmarks for the ongoing worldwide conversation concerning AI regulation.
  • India played a pivotal role in 20th-century debates regarding the regulation of advanced technologies and now it faces the task of defining its stance on AI governance.
  • But there is a difference this time as India is now actively contributing to the global progress of AI, marking a substantial departure from its previous role.

Q1) Why do we need Artificial Intelligence?

The goal of Artificial intelligence is to create intelligent machines that can mimic human behaviour. We need AI for today's world to solve complex problems, make our lives more smoothly by automating routine work, saving manpower, and to perform many other tasks.

Q2) What is the limitation of AI in its current form? 

In the current stage of Artificial intelligence, one can only employ it for individual solutions to carry out certain AI-powered marketing tasks. There are numerous intelligent marketing solutions available, ranging from using AI to optimise and personalise your content to an AI tool that helps optimise paid advertising. However, as there is no universally applicable answer, using a variety of different tools to complete a variety of artificially intelligent activities can be costly, time-consuming, and messy.


Source: The Indian Express