Why India must put Africa at the Heart of its Global South Vision

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Why in News?

  • During her visit to Mauritius, President Droupadi Murmu emphasised the importance of India's relations with African countries, highlighting Mauritius as a key partner in the Indian Ocean Region.
  • This visit underscores India's growing engagement with Africa, marked by collaborative efforts in community development and the inauguration of essential projects.
  • As India aims to strengthen its position within the Global South, it is crucial to understand the multifaceted relationship between India and Africa, examining the opportunities it presents and the imperatives for deeper engagement.

An Analysis of the Depth and Significance of India's Engagement with Africa

  • Investments and Trade
    • India's investments in Africa have witnessed significant growth, reaching $98 billion in 2023.
    • This substantial investment reflects India's confidence in Africa's economic potential and its commitment to fostering long-term partnerships.
    • Similarly, bilateral trade between India and Africa has surged, totalling $100 billion.
    • This trade encompasses a wide range of sectors, including agriculture, manufacturing, technology, and services, contributing to economic growth and diversification in both regions.
  • Developmental Projects
    • These projects cover a diverse array of areas, such as infrastructure development, healthcare, education, agriculture, and renewable energy.
    • By investing in such projects, India not only promotes economic development in Africa but also strengthens diplomatic ties and goodwill between the two regions.
  • Export of Scalable Solutions
    • India's expertise in developing and implementing cost-effective, scalable solutions has been instrumental in addressing various challenges faced by African nations.
    • Indian social enterprises, NGOs, and government agencies have exported innovative solutions ranging from eco-friendly housing to solar energy technology.
    • These initiatives not only contribute to poverty alleviation and sustainable development but also enhance India's reputation as a reliable partner committed to sharing knowledge and resources for mutual benefit.
  • Mutual Prosperity and Development
    • By leveraging each other's strengths and resources, both regions stand to benefit economically and socially.
    • India's investments create employment opportunities, stimulate economic growth, and facilitate technology transfer in Africa, while African markets provide India with access to natural resources, new markets, and strategic partnerships.
    • This symbiotic relationship fosters economic resilience, innovation, and inclusive growth in both India and Africa.

The Strategic Importance of India's Advocacy for Africa's Representation in Global Forums

  • To Amplify Africa’s Representation and Voice
    • India's advocacy for Africa's representation in global governance structures underscores its commitment to amplifying the voices of developing nations.
    • With Africa housing a significant portion of the world's population and contributing a substantial share of global GDP, ensuring its representation is essential for fostering a more inclusive and equitable international order.
    • India's support for initiatives like the African Union's representation in the G20 demonstrates its recognition of Africa's importance in shaping global agendas and policies.
  • A Push for Reform and Adaptation
    • As the international landscape undergoes rapid transformation, there is a growing recognition of the need to adapt governance mechanisms to address emerging challenges and promote sustainable development.
    • India's advocacy for Africa's inclusion in global forums reflects its commitment to reforming institutions like the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, and World Bank to better represent the interests of developing nations.
  • To Build Strategic Partnerships
    • India's advocacy for Africa's representation in global governance is not merely altruistic but also strategic.
    • Recognising Africa's growing influence in international affairs, India seeks to cultivate strategic partnerships with African nations to advance its own interests on the global stage.
    • By supporting Africa's participation in decision-making processes, India enhances its diplomatic leverage and strengthens its position as a leading voice within the Global South.
    • This strategic alignment of interests offers mutual cooperation and solidarity between India and Africa, amplifying their collective influence in shaping global agendas.
  • Development Agenda
    • India's advocacy for Africa's representation in global governance is closely aligned with its broader development agenda, which prioritises poverty alleviation, sustainable development, and inclusive growth.
    • By advocating for Africa's interests in global forums, India seeks to address systemic inequalities and promote policies that benefit the most vulnerable populations.
    • This advocacy encompasses a wide range of issues, including trade, finance, climate change, and peace and security, reflecting India's commitment to fostering a more just and equitable world order.

Historical Ties between India and Africa and the Potential for Future Developments

  • Colonial Legacy and Liberation Movements
    • India's historical connections with Africa are rooted in its own struggle for independence from colonial rule.
    • During the colonial era, India and many African nations shared similar experiences of exploitation and oppression under European colonial powers.
    • India played a significant role in supporting African liberation movements, offering political, moral, and even material support to freedom fighters across the continent.
    • This shared history of anti-colonial struggle forms the basis of solidarity and mutual understanding between India and Africa.
  • Cultural and People-to-People Ties
    • The historical interactions between Indian traders, scholars, and missionaries with African societies have left lasting imprints on both regions' cultures, languages, and traditions.
    • Today, Indian communities thrive in various African countries, contributing to the cultural diversity and economic vibrancy of the continent.
    • These cultural connections serve as a bridge for deeper engagement and collaboration between India and Africa.
  • Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance
    • India's development cooperation with Africa traces its roots to the early days of independence, when India extended technical assistance and capacity-building support to newly independent African nations.
    • Over the years, India has continued to prioritise Africa in its foreign policy agenda, helping in diverse fields such as education, healthcare, agriculture, and infrastructure development.
    • This longstanding commitment to Africa's development reflects India's recognition of the continent's potential and its desire to contribute to its progress.
  • Future Prospects and Economic Opportunities
    • As Africa emerges as a key hub of economic activity and innovation, India stands to benefit from deepening its economic ties with the continent.
    • Leveraging its historical connections and cultural affinity, India can explore new avenues for trade, investment, and technology transfer in Africa.
    • Likewise, Africa can tap into India's expertise in areas such as information technology, pharmaceuticals, renewable energy, and agriculture to fuel its own development trajectory.
  • Geopolitical Realignment and Strategic Partnerships
    • As traditional power centres undergo transformations, India and Africa have an opportunity to forge closer strategic alliances based on shared interests and values.
    • By aligning their diplomatic efforts and leveraging their collective strengths, India and Africa can play a more influential role in shaping the global agenda and addressing common challenges such as climate change, terrorism, and pandemics.


  • India's multifaceted relationship with Africa offers significant opportunities for economic, political, and social cooperation.
  • As India seeks to assert its leadership within the Global South, prioritising engagement with African nations is essential.

As the world undergoes rapid changes, the synergy between India and Africa holds the promise of a mutually beneficial and prosperous future.