Different approaches to AI regulation


12:55 PM

1 min read
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What’s in today’s article?

● Why in News?

● United Nations Resolution on Artificial Intelligence

● The EU’s approach

● China’s stand on AI

● The U.K.’s framework

● India’s position

Why in News?

The Artificial Intelligence (AI) space has seen certain developments crucial to its regulation in recent years.

These include the United Nations’s Resolution on Artificial Intelligence, the AI Act by the European Parliament, laws introduced on AI in the U.K. and China and the launch of the AI mission in India.

These efforts to formalise AI regulations at the global level will be critical to various sectors of governance in all other countries.

United Nations Resolution on Artificial Intelligence

  • Recognizing Risks and Promoting Responsible Use
    • This resolution highlights the importance of acknowledging the risks associated with AI systems and the urgent need to use them responsibly.
    • It emphasized that using AI unethically or improperly could hinder the achievement of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • SDG goals cover various aspects like social well-being, environmental protection, and economic growth.
  • Impact on Workforce and Development
    • One major concern highlighted in the resolution is the potential adverse impact of AI on the workforce.
    • This is particularly worrying for developing and least developed countries.
    • These nations may face challenges as their labor markets become more vulnerable due to the increasing use of AI systems.
    • It's crucial for these countries to come up with strategies to respond effectively to these changes.
  • Effects on Small and Medium Entrepreneurs
    • Another important aspect addressed in the resolution is the impact of AI on small and medium entrepreneurs.
    • The resolution stresses the need to understand how AI adoption might affect these businesses.
  • Collaborative Action and Future Implications
    • This UN resolution is significant as it brings attention to the future implications of AI systems.
    • It underscores the urgent need for collaborative action from governments, organizations, and other stakeholders.
    • By working together, we can ensure that AI is developed and used in a responsible manner that benefits society as a whole.

The EU’s approach

  • Risk-based approach to categorise the AI systems
    • The EU recently passed the AI Act, the foremost law establishing rules and regulations governing AI systems.
    • With its risk-based approach, the Act categorises systems into four categories, namely unacceptable, high, limited, and minimal risks.
    • It prescribes guidelines for each of the above categories.
  • Bans certain aspect of AI
    • The Act prescribes an absolute ban on applications that risk citizens’ rights, including manipulation of human behaviour, emotion recognition, mass surveillance etc.
  • Exemptions with Prior Authorization
    • The Act permits exceptions for banned applications in cases related to law enforcement.
    • However, it restricts their deployment by requiring prior approval from a judicial or administrative authority in such instances.
  • Addressing Compliance Burden and Regulating Generative AI
    • The important law focuses on two key things:
      • acknowledging the compliance burden placed on business enterprises, and start-ups, and
      • regulating the much-deliberated Generative AI systems such as ChatGPT.
    • These are urgent concerns for policymakers because these systems can cause big changes and it's tough to keep up with their development.

China’s stand on AI

  • Identifying risks
    • Identifying risks is evident in the approach adopted by China.
    • It focuses on prompting AI tools and innovation with safeguards against any future harm to the nation’s social and economic goals.
  • Address three issues associated with AI
    • This regulatory framework addresses the following three issues:
      • content moderation, which includes identification of content generated through any AI system;
      • personal data protection, with a specific focus on the need to procure users’ consent before accessing and processing their data; and
      • algorithmic governance, with a focus on security and ethics while developing and running algorithms over any gathered dataset.

The U.K.’s framework

  • The UK is taking a thoughtful approach to regulating AI systems. Instead of strict legal rules, they're focusing on principles and context.
  • They're making it mandatory to consult with regulatory bodies. This helps them gain more knowledge about these technologies and fills any gaps in regulations.
  • Unlike the EU, the UK is choosing a softer, decentralized method, aiming to regulate AI effectively without rigid laws.

India’s position

  • India's response to regulating AI is crucial because it has one of the largest consumer bases and labor forces for technology companies globally.
  • Investment in AI Ecosystem
    • To enhance its AI ecosystem, India has approved a ₹10,300 crore allocation for the India AI mission.
    • This funding aims to strengthen public-private partnerships and promote the startup ecosystem.
  • Deployment of Advanced Technology
    • Part of this allocation will be used to deploy 10,000 Graphic Processing Units and Large Multi-Models (LMMs) for AI-based research collaboration and innovative projects.
  • Alignment with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
    • India's response to AI regulation must align with its commitment to the SDGs while ensuring continued economic growth.
  • Balancing Innovation and Risk Mitigation
    • It's important for India to use AI systems judiciously to foster innovation while mitigating potential risks.
  • Gradual Approach for Fair and Inclusive AI
    • India is adopting a gradual, phase-led approach towards developing a fair and inclusive AI system, taking into account the diverse needs and challenges of its population.

Q.1. What is Artificial intelligence (AI)?

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the ability of machines to display human-like capabilities, such as reasoning, learning, planning, and creativity. AI is also known as machine intelligence.

 Q.2. What is Generative AI?

Generative AI, or GenAI, is a type of artificial intelligence that uses user prompts to create new content like text, images, videos, sounds, code, 3D designs, and more.