Pulses Production in India

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What’s in Today’s Article?

  • Why in the News?
  • About Pulses
  • Climate Requirement
  • Pulses Production in India
  • Government Programme w.r.t. Pulses in India
  • News Summary

Why in News?

  • Various representatives of governments, as well as commercial and non­profit organisations involved in the production and processing of pulses, will attend the Global Pulse Convention to be held in New Delhi in February.

About Pulses

  • Pulses are annual leguminous crops yielding between one and 12 grains or seeds of variable size, shape and color within a pod, used for both food and feed.
  • The term “pulses” is limited to crops harvested solely for dry grain, thereby excluding crops harvested green for food, which are classified as vegetable crops.
  • Besides serving as an important source of protein for a large portion of the global population, pulses contribute to healthy soils and climate change mitigation through their nitrogen-fixing properties.
  • Bengal Gram (Desi Chick Pea / Desi Chana), Pigeon Peas (Arhar / Toor / Red Gram), Green Beans (Moong Beans), Chick Peas (Kabuli Chana), Black Matpe (Urad / Mah / Black Gram), Red Kidney Beans (Rajma), Black Eyed Peas (Lobiya), Lentils (Masoor), White Peas (Matar) are major pulses grown and consumed in India.

Climate Requirement

  • Pulse crops are cultivated in Kharif, Rabi and Zaid seasons of the Agricultural year.
    • Rabi crops require mild cold climate during sowing period, during vegetative to pod development cold climate and during maturity / harvesting warm climate.
    • Similarly, Kharif pulse crops require warm climate throughout their life from sowing to harvesting. Summer pulses are habitants of warm climate.
  • Seed is required to pass many stages to produce seed like germination, seedling, vegetative, flowering, fruit setting, pod development and grain maturity / harvesting.

Pulses Production in India

  • India is the largest producer (25% of global production), consumer (27% of world consumption) and importer (14%) of pulses in the world.
  • Pulses account for around 20 per cent of the area under foodgrains and contribute around 7-10 per cent of the total foodgrains production in the country.
  • Though pulses are grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons, Rabi pulses contribute more than 60 per cent of the total production.
  • Gram is the most dominant pulse having a share of around 40 per cent in the total production followed by Tur/Arhar at 15 to 20 per cent and Urad/Black Matpe and Moong at around 8-10 per cent each.

Government Programme w.r.t. Pulses in India

  • Department of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare is implementing National Food Security Mission (NFSM)-Pulse.
  • It has been launched with the objectives of increasing production through area expansion and productivity enhancement.
    • Under NFSM-Pulses, assistance is given through States/UTs to the farmers for interventions like cluster demonstrations on improved package of practices, demonstrations on cropping system, seed production and distribution of HYVs/hybrids, etc.
  • In order to increase the productivity potential of pulses crops in the country, the ICAR is undertaking basic and strategic research on these crops.
    • The idea is to develop location-specific high yielding varieties and match production packages.
    • During 2014-2023, 343 high yielding varieties/hybrids of Pulses have been notified for commercial cultivation in the country.
  • Further to ensure remunerative prices to farmers, Government implements an umbrella scheme PM-AASHA comprising Price Support Scheme (PSS), Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS) and Private Procurement Stockist Scheme (PPSS) in order to ensure Minimum Support Price (MSP) to farmers for their produce of notified oilseeds, pulses and copra.
  • During the year 2021-22, a total of 30.31 lakh tonnes of pulses were procured under PSS benefitting 13,90,737 farmers, while during 2022-23 (as on 31.07.2023) 28.33 lakh tonnes of pulses have been procured so far, benefitting 12,43,977 farmers.

News Summary

  • The Global Pulse Convention is scheduled to be held in New Delhi in February.
  • The Global Pulse Convention is jointly organised by the National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd. (NAFED) and the Global Pulse Confederation (GPC).
  • The conference will see experts in the field sharing their views and experiences with various stakeholders and policymakers.

Q1) What do you mean by Legume?

 A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae, or the fruit or seed of such a plant. When used as a dry grain, the seed is also called a pulse. Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for human consumption, for livestock forage and silage, and as soil-enhancing green manure.

Q2) Who determines Minimum Support Price (MSP)?

The minimum support prices are announced by the Government of India at the beginning of the sowing season for certain crops on the basis of the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP).

Source: India to host global meet on pulses after 18 years | PIB