Different Types of Security Cover in India

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What’s in today’s article?

  • Why in news?
  • What is Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)?
  • Security Category in India
  • Security forces responsible for VIP protection
  • Different types of security cover
  • News Summary: Union Home Ministry extends Z+ security to Kerala Governor

Why in news?

  • Union Home Ministry has extended Z+ Security cover of CRPF to Governor of Kerala.
  • MHA took a decision on this after the Kerala Governor held a sit-in in front of a roadside shop in Kollam district after Students’ Federation of India (SFI) activists allegedly tried to hit his vehicle.

What is Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)?

  • About
    • CRPF is one of the oldest Central para military forces (now termed as Central Armed Police Force) and it comes under the Ministry of Home Affairs.
    • CRPF came into existence as Crown Representative’s Police on 27th July 1939.
      • It became the Central Reserve Police Force on enactment of the CRPF Act in December 1949.
    • It is All India in character, both in deployment and in its composition.
    • CRPF has, over the years, acquired the distinction of being perhaps the most acceptable Force, by the people and the State administrations.
      • This is due to its unique capability to quickly adapt to various situations, and also, to work in perfect harmony with the State Police.
  • Duties performed by the CRPF
    • Crowd & Riot control
    • Counter Militancy / Insurgency operations/Dealing with Left Wing Extremism
    • Overall co-ordination of large-scale security arrangement especially with regard to elections in disturbed areas.
    • Protection of VIPs and vital installations.
    • Checking environmental de-gradation and protection of local Flora and Fauna
    • Fighting aggression during War time
    • Participating in UN Peace Keeping Mission
    • Rescue and Relief operations at the time of Natural Calamities.

Security Category in India

  • In India, security is provided to high-risk individuals by the police and local government.
  • Ministers get Central Security cover due to their position in the government.
    • On the other hand, a call on such security to private individuals is taken by the Home Ministry based on inputs from intelligence agencies.
  • However, since these agencies do not report to any statutory body, VIP security has sometimes been alleged to be a political decision.

Security Forces Responsible for VIP Protection

  • Typically, the agencies responsible for providing securities to VVIPs/VIPs /high-profile celebrities include:
    • The Special Protection Group (SPG), National Security Guards (NSG), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and Central Industrial Security Force (CISF).

Different Types of Security Cover

There are six kinds of security covers:

  • X: It has a security cover of 2 personnel (No Commando, Only Armed Police Personnel)
  • Y: It has a security cover of 11 personnel (Including 1 or 2 Commando) + (Police Personnel). Only one personnel for mobile security.
  • Y Plus: It has a security cover of 11+ personnel (Including 1 or 2 Commando) + (Police Personnel). Two personnel for mobile security.
  • Z: It has a security cover of 22 personnel (Including 4 or 5 NSG Commando) + (Police Personnel)
  • Z plus
    • It has a security cover of 55 personnel (Including 10+ NSG Commando) + (Police Personnel).
    • Protectees under his category get a bullet proof car, escort in three shifts and additional security when required.
  • Special Protection Group (SPG) – SPG protects only the Prime Minister.

News Summary: Union Home Ministry extends Z+ security to Kerala Governor

  • Kerala Governor Arif Mohammed Khan has been given Z+ security by Centre after a faceoff with student activists.
  • Earlier, Governor Khan confronted members of the CPI(M)-linked Students Federation of India (SFI) in Kollam district as they staged a black flag protest against him.
  • The Governor's actions led to a two-hour standoff, during which he sat on the roadside, expressing his dissatisfaction with the response of the authorities.
  • The Governor has accused Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan of "promoting lawlessness in the state" and demanded action against the protestors.

Q1) What is Special Protection Group (SPG)?

The Special Protection Group (SPG) is a federal agency that protects the Prime Minister of India, former Prime Ministers, and their immediate family members. The SPG was established in 1988 by an Act of the Parliament of India.

Q2) What is Central Armed Police Force (CAPF)?

The Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) is a collective name for seven paramilitary forces in India. These forces are under the authority of the Ministry of Home Affairs. The CAPFs play a key role in defending the country's interests, primarily against internal threats.


Sources: ‘CM promoting lawlessness’: Kerala Governor Arif Mohammed Khan gets Z+ security after faceoff with SFI | Times of India | NDTV | Hindustan Times