Housing for Vulnerable Tribal Groups

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What’s in Today’s Article?

  • Why in the News?
  • Scheduled Tribes in India
  • What is a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG)?
  • Government Scheme(s) for PVTGs
  • About Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G)
  • Cost Sharing
  • Salient Features of the Scheme
  • Achievements so Far
  • News Summary

Why In News?

  • The Centre has begun survey and registration to identify eligible beneficiaries of Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G) among 75 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).

Scheduled Tribes in India

  • According to the 2011 Census, the Scheduled Tribes account for 104 million representing 8.6% of the country’s population.
  • These Scheduled Tribes are spread throughout the country largely in forest and hilly regions.
  • The essential characteristics of these communities are:
    • Primitive Traits
    • Geographical isolation
    • Distinct culture
    • Shy of contact with community at large
    • Economically backwards
  • Government of India set up Ministry of Tribal Affairs in 1999 after the bifurcation of Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
    • Objective: To provide a more focused approach towards the integrated socio-economic development of the Scheduled Tribes (the most underprivileged section of the Indian Society) in a coordinated and planned manner.
  • As in the case of Scheduled Castes, the Plan objective of empowering the tribals is being achieved through a three-pronged strategy of:
    • Social empowerment,
    • Economic empowerment,
    • Social justice

What is a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG)?

  • PVTGs are more vulnerable among the tribal groups.
    • Due to this factor, more developed and assertive tribal groups take a major chunk of the tribal development funds, because of which PVTGs need more funds directed for their development.
  • In this context, in 1975, the Government of India declared 52 tribal groups as PVTGs on the recommendation of Dhebar commission.
    • Currently, there are 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes.
  • The PVTGs are spread over 18 states and one Union Territory (UT), in the country (2011 census).
    • Odisha has the highest number (more than 2.5 lakh) of PVTGs.
  • Characteristics of PVTGs:
    • Population – stagnant/declining
    • Technology – pre-agricultural
    • Literacy Level – extremely low
    • Economy – Subsistence level

Government Scheme(s) for PVTGs

  • Ministry of Tribal Affairs implements a scheme in the name of 'Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)'.
  • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme having a provision of 100% Central assistance to 18 states and Union territory of Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
  • The scheme of Development of PVTGs aims at socio-economic development of PVTGs in a comprehensive manner, while retaining their culture and heritage.
  • As a part of the scheme, State Governments undertakes projects that are tailored to cater to sectors like education, health and livelihood schemes for the PVTGs.

About Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G)

  • The main aim of the scheme is to provide pucca house with some of the basic amenities.
  • This scheme is meant for people who do not own a house and people who live in kutcha houses or houses which are severely damaged.
  • At present, the minimum size of the houses to be built under the PMAY-G scheme is 25 sq. mt., with a hygienic cooking space.
  • Concerned Ministry: Ministry of Rural Development

Cost Sharing

  • The cost of the unit is shared in a 60:40 ratio between the Central and State governments in plain areas, i.e., Rs. 1.20 lakh of assistance for each unit.
  • In the Himalayan states, north-eastern states, and the Union Territory (UT) of Jammu & Kashmir, the ratio is 90:10 with up to Rs. 1.30 lakh of assistance for each unit.
  • 100% financing from the Centre for Union Territories including the UT of Ladakh.

Salient Features of the Scheme

  • Beneficiaries are identified using parameters from Socio-Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011 data and verified by Gram Sabhas.
  • Beneficiaries are entitled to 90/95 person-days of unskilled labour under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS).
  • Assistance for construction of toilets of up to Rs.12,000 to be provided under Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G) in collaboration with MGNREGS or other schemes.
  • Payments are made electronically directly to bank accounts or post office accounts that are linked to Aadhaar.

Achievements so Far

  • Against the mandated target of construction of 2.95 crore houses under PMAY-G, the Ministry has allocated a target of 2.94 crore houses to the States/UTs.
  • Of these, the States/UTs have sanctioned 2.85 crore houses to the beneficiaries and 2.22 crore houses have already been completed till 24.03.2023. 

News Summary

  • The Centre has begun survey and registration to identify eligible beneficiaries of PMAY-G among 75 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) across 18 states and Union Territories.
  • The government aims to release the first instalment to them by mid-January.
  • 4.9 lakh houses are to be built for PVTGs under the Pradhan Mantri Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan (PM-JANMAN).
    • PM-JANMAN was approved by the Central government in November, 2023.
  • Apart from housing, the Centre aims to provide clean drinking water and sanitation, improved access to education, health and nutrition, road and telecom connectivity facilities to these groups under respective Central schemes.

Q1) Why was the Ministry of Tribal Affairs formed?

 The Ministry of Tribal Affairs was set up in 1999, with the objective of providing a more focussed, co-ordinated and planned approach towards the integrated socio-economic development of the underprivileged Scheduled Tribes (STs).

Q2) Which state has the highest tribal population in India?

 Madhya Pradesh has the highest tribal population in India. Meanwhile Mizoram(94.4 %) has the highest percentage of tribal population in India.

Source: Housing for Vulnerable tribal groups: 1st instalment from Centre likely by mid-Jan