Why in News?
- 13th century Hindu temple ruins have been unearthed amidst a shrub jungle northeast of the Durga temple, atop a hillock in the Pushpagiri Kshetram in Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh.
- The architectural features of the ruins reveal a style that is contemporary to a temple at Vallur, built by the Kayastha rulers.
About Kayastha Rulers:
- The Kayasthas (1239 AD - 1297 AD) were subordinates to the rulers of the Kakatiya dynasty.
- In the history of the Kakatiyas, the Kayastha played a prominent role both as loyal subordinates and traitors.
- It is believed that they originally belonged to a class of warriors of Western India.
- They ruled the region with Vallur as the capital.
- Some rulers of this community were -Ganagaya Sahini (1239 - 1258 AD), Jannigadeva (1258 - 1268 AD), and Ambadeva II (1272 - 1294 AD). The last ruler was Trupurari II (1294 - 1297 AD).
- Pushpagiri is referred to as Hari-Hara Kshetra, as there are a number of temples dedicated to both Shiva and Vishnu.
- It is located on the banks of the Pennar river.
- Pushpagiri is also called the second Hampi due to its beautiful architecture.
Q1) Where does the Pennar river originate?
The Pennar (also known as Uttara Pinakini) is one of the major rivers of the peninsula. The Pennar rises in the Chenna Kasava hill of the Nandidurg range, in Chikkaballapura district of Karnataka and flows towards east eventually draining into the Bay of Bengal.