About Kavach System

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The railways recently confirmed that there was no ‘Kavach’ system installed on the trains involved in the accident in Odisha's Balasore district.

About Kavach System:

  • It is an indigenously developed Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system.
  • Kavach was developed by the Research Design and Standards Organisation (RDSO) under Indian Railway (IR) in collaboration with Medha Servo Drives Pvt Ltd, HBL Power Systems Ltd and Kernex Microsystems.
  • It is a set of electronic devices and Radio Frequency Identification devices installed in locomotives, in the signalling system as well the tracks, that talk to each other using ultra-high radio frequencies to control the brakes of trains and also alert drivers, all based on the logic programmed into them.
  • Since 2016, the railways have been carrying out field tests for Kavach on passenger trains.
  • Applications:
    • It has been designed to assist locomotive pilots in avoiding Signal Passing At Danger (SPAD) and overspeeding.
    • The system can alert the loco pilot, take control of the brakes and bring the train to a halt automatically when it notices another train on the same line within a prescribed distance.
    • The device also continuously relays the signals ahead to the locomotive, making it useful for loco pilots in low visibility.
    • It also controls the speed of the train by an automatic application of brakes in case the loco pilot fails to do so.
    • It helps the loco pilot in running the train during inclement weather conditions such as dense fog.


Q1) What is an Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system?

Automatic Train Protection (ATP) System means the whole equipment that ensures safe running of the trains on the main line, i.e. prevents collision of trains by maintaining safe distance between them on the same track and controls the trains speed.

Source: What is train ‘Kavach’ and why is it trending after Odisha train accident?