China has banned the direct and indirect import of ruminants and its related products from Iraq due to an outbreak of bluetongue disease.
About Bluetongue disease(BT)
- · It is a non-contagious, viral disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants (primarily sheep and including cattle, goats, buffalo, antelope, deer, elk and camels).
- · It is transmitted by insects, particularly biting midges of the Culicoides species.
- · The virus which causes BT is identified as a member of the Reoviridae family.
- · Twenty-four (24) different serotypes have been identified and the ability of each strain to cause disease varies considerably.
- · Symptoms: The severity of disease varies among different species with symptoms being most severe in sheep resulting in deaths, weight loss and disruption in wool growth.
- · Geographical distribution
- o It has a significant global distribution in regions where the insect vector is present, including Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and several islands in the tropics and subtropics.
- o The virus is maintained in areas where the climate will allow biting midges to survive over winter.
- · Transmission and spread
- o The insect vector is the key to transmission of BT virus between animals.
- o Vectors are infected with BT virus after ingesting blood from infected animals.
- o Without the vector, the disease cannot spread from animal to animal.
- o BT virus transmission can occur throughout the year, particularly during rainy periods.
Q1) What is Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR)?
It is a highly contagious viral disease of sheep and goats with high mortality. It is caused by a virus of the family paramyxoviridae and genus morbillivirus. It is closely related to other members of the genus, including the rinderpest virus, measles virus, and canine distemper virus.