Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

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The Central Government recently told the Supreme Court that the CBI is an “independent body” and the Centre has “no superintendence or control over it.

About Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

  • It is the premier investigative agency in India, with a dual responsibility to investigate grievous cases and provide leadership and direction in fighting corruption to the police force across the country.
  • The establishment of the CBI was recommended by the Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption (1962–1964).
  • It is not a statutory body, as it was set up by a resolution (1963) of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • It derives its powers from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946.
  • It is also the nodal police agency in India that coordinates investigations on behalf of Interpol member countries.
  • Motto: Industry, Impartiality, and Integrity
  • Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances, and Pensions
  • Though, for issues under the Prevention of Corruption Act, its superintendence lies with the Central Vigilance Commission.
  • Following are the types of cases that CBI deals with:
    • Anti-Corruption Crimes: CBI manages the investigation of cases under the Prevention of Corruption Act against public officials and central government employees, Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs), Corporations, or bodies owned or controlled by the central government of India.
    • Economic Crimes: It probes the cases of huge financial scams and serious economic frauds, comprising crimes relating to fake Indian currency notes, bank fraud and cybercrime, import-export and foreign exchange violations, cultural property, mega smuggling racket of narcotics, antiques, and smuggling of other contraband items.
    • Suo Moto Cases:
    • CBI accelerates the investigation of offences only in the Union Territories by taking them up on a priority basis.
    • The central government can ask the CBI to probe a crime in a state, but only with due permission from the respective State Government.
    • The Supreme Court and High Court can also direct the CBI to investigate crimes anywhere in the country without the state’s approval.
    • Special Crimes:
    • CBI manages the investigation of serious and pre-planned crimes under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and other laws on the requests of the state governments or the direction of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
    • For instance, cases like bomb blasts, terrorism, abduction for ransom, and crimes committed by the mafia or the underworld at a particular place in the country.

Q1) What is the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC)?

CVC is an apex vigilance institution that exercises superintendence over the vigilance administration of the organizations where the executive powers of the Government of India extends. iT was set up through a resolution of the Government of India on the recommendations of the Committee on Prevention of Corruption formed under the Chairmanship of Shri K. Santhanam in 1964. The CVC is not controlled by any Ministry/Department. It is responsible to the Parliament. It has all the powers of a Civil Court while conducting any inquiry. It can ask for information or report from authorities to exercise its mandate relating to vigilance and anti-corruption work.

Source: CBI independent body, not under our control: Centre to Supreme Court