ChatGPT by OpenAI

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Recently an artificial intelligence tool called ChatGPT was released on the internet.

About ChatGPT:

  • The tool has been developed by OpenAI, a research institute founded in 2015.
  • This tool ‘knew’ every topic under the sun; it could answer questions and carry on a conversation.
  • This tool interacts with humans in natural language and is impressive because aside from answering general queries, it has many other functions.
  • ChatGPT is much more than a chat bot.
    • For example, you can ask it to write a program or even a simple software application.
  • It can also do creative tasks such as writing a story. It can explain scientific concepts and answer any question that needs factual answers.


Language Model:

  • ChatGPT is what is called a Language Model, rather than a chat bot.
  • A language model is a software that prints out a sequence of words as output that are related to some words given as input with appropriate semantic relation; in practical terms, it means that it can perform tasks like answering questions and carrying on a conversation with humans.
  • It is often used in natural language processing (NLP) applications, such as speech recognition, automatic translation, and text generation.
  • There are a few other language models like:
    • BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) from Google.


Standard Techniques:

  • The accuracy of ChatGPT or any language model can be measured using standard techniques.
  • One such technique is “Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation” or the ROUGE metric which compares ChatGPT’s output of content against a standard expected content and measures the overlap as success percentage.
  • For language models like GPT that are also used in translation, another metric called the BLEU metric (Bilingual Evaluation Under Study) is employed; this metric compares overlap in translated content with a standard translation.


Neural Network:

  • It is also a neural network.
  • A neural network can be thought of as a large network of computers that can fine tune its output of words based on the feedback given to it during stages of training: this training process and the technology together are called Reinforcement Learning.
  • The input data is typically huge corpus of text.



  • OpenAI is a research institute and company that focuses on developing artificial intelligence technology in a responsible and safe way.
  • It was founded in 2015 by a group of entrepreneurs and researchers, including Elon Musk, Sam Altman, and Greg Brockman.


Q1) What does GPT stand for in ‘ ChatGPT’?

The GPT stands for "Generative Pre-trained Transformer," which refers to how ChatGPT processes requests and formulates responses.

Source: The Hindu