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Recently, UNICEF said that since 2017, a spike in conflict and displacement in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is pushing children into the worst cholera crisis.

About Cholera:


  • It is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
  • It remains a global threat to public health and an indicator of inequity and lack of social development.
  • Symptoms
    • It is an extremely virulent disease that can cause severe acute watery diarrhoea. 
    • Profuse watery diarrhoea, Vomiting,  Leg cramps etc
  • The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water.
  • Currently, there are three WHO pre-qualified oral cholera vaccines (OCV), Dukoral, Shanchol, and Euvichol-Plus
  • All three vaccines require two doses for full protection.


Key facts about UNICEF

  • UNICEF stands for the United Nations Children's Fund.
  • It is a specialized agency of the United Nations dedicated to providing humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries. 
  • It was established in 1946 and is headquartered in New York City, United States.
  • The organization operates in over 190 countries and territories around the world.
  • It is working to ensure that every child has access to basic healthcare, education, nutrition, clean water, and protection from violence and exploitation.


Q1) What are Bacteria?

Bacteria are a diverse group of single-celled microorganisms that are found in virtually every environment on Earth. They  are classified as prokaryotes, which means they lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Instead, their genetic material (DNA) is found in a region called the nucleoid.

Source: Children in Congo facing worst cholera outbreak since 2017: UNICEF