What is the Genome India Project?

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What is the Genome India Project? Blog Image


The Genome India Project recently announced that it had finished sequencing 10,000 Indian genomes.

About Genome India Project

  • It is a pan-India initiative focused on the whole genome sequencing of representative populations across India.
  • Goal: The goal is to start with and execute whole genome sequencing and subsequent data analysis of 10,000 individuals representing the country’s diverse population. 
  • This is a mission-mode, multi-institution consortium project, the first of its kind in India, supported and funded by the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India.
  • The specific aims of the project are:
    • Create an exhaustive catalog of genetic variations (common, low frequency, rare, single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, and structural variations) in Indians.
    • Create a reference haplotype structure for Indians. This reference panel can be used for imputing missing genetic variation in future studies.
    • Design genome-wide arrays for research and diagnostics at an affordable cost.
    • Establish a biobank for DNA and plasma collected for future use in research.

What is Genome?

  • A genome is the complete set of genetic information in an organism.
  • In living organisms, the genome is stored in long molecules of DNA called chromosomes. 
  • In humans, the genome consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes located in the cell’s nucleus, as well as a small chromosome in the cell’s mitochondria.
  • A genome contains all the information needed for an individual to develop and function. 

Q1) What is Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)?

DNA is a set of instructions found in a cell. These instructions are used for the growth and development of an organism. The DNA of a person is unique, and variation in the sequence of DNA can be used to match individuals and identify them.

Source: Decoding the script: On the Genome India Project and its sequencing 10,000 Indian genomes