Ethiopia recently announced that it has filled its Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Nile River.
About Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD):
- The GERD, formerly known as the Millennium Dam, is situated in the Benishangul-Gumuz region of Ethiopia, near the border with Sudan.
- It is located on the Blue Nile, one of the main tributaries of the Nile River.
- Capacity: At 6.45 Gigawatts, the dam will be the largest hydroelectric power plant in Africa when completed.
- It is a roller-compacted concrete (RCC) gravity-type dam comprising of two power stations, three spillways and a saddle dam.
- The main dam is 145m high and 1,780m long.
- It will create a reservoir covering 1,875 square kilometres and contain 74 billion cubic metres of water.
- Dispute: Egypt and Sudan fear the massive $4.2bn GERD will severely reduce the share of Nile water they receive and have repeatedly asked Ethiopia to stop filling it until they have all reached agreement on how it should work.
Q1) What is a Gravity Dam?
A gravity dam is a type of dam structure that relies on its own weight and the force of gravity to resist the pressure of water and other forces acting against it. Gravity dams are typically made of concrete or masonry and are designed to hold back large volumes of water to create reservoirs for purposes such as irrigation, water supply, hydropower generation, and flood control.