Gilbert Hill

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Overview:

The Maharashtra Government recently proposed to develop Gilbert Hill into a tourist spot on the lines of Burj Khalifa in Dubai.

About Gilbert Hill:

  • It is a 200-foot monolith column of black basalt rock located at Andheri in Mumbai.
  • The rock has a sheer vertical face and was formed when molten lava was squeezed out of the Earth's clefts during the Mesozoic Era about 66 million years ago.
  • It was declared a National Park in 1952, while the BrihanMumbai Municipal Corporation categorised it as a Grade II heritage structure in 2007.
  • The 'hill' is only one of three outcrops of volcanic rock worldwide.
  • Arguably the oldest heritage site in the country in its original form, Gilbert Hill has a few temples and a small garden atop. These are accessed by a steep staircase carved into the rock.

 

Key Facts about Mesozoic Era:

  • It is one of the major geologic eras in Earth's history, lasting approximately from 252 million years ago to 66 million years ago.
  • It is also known as the "Age of Dinosaurs" because dinosaurs were the dominant land animals during this time.
  • The Mesozoic Era was divided into three periods:
  • Triassic Period (252 to 201 million years ago):
    • The first dinosaurs appeared during this period, along with other reptilessuch as crocodiles and pterosaurs.
    • The climate was warm and humid.
    • Pangea, the supercontinent, began to break apart.
  • Jurassic Period (201 to 145 million years ago):
    • This was the golden age of dinosaurs, with many of the familiar dinosaur species, such as Tyrannosaurus rex, Stegosaurus, and Triceratops, appearing during this time.
    • The first birds, like Archaeopteryx, emerged.
    • The climate was still warm and humid.
  • Cretaceous Period (145 to 66 million years ago):
    • The dinosaurs reached their peak diversity during this period.
    • The climate became cooler and drier, and the continents continued to break apart. 
    • The period ended with the mass extinction event known as the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction, likely caused by a combination of factors. This event led to the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and many other species.

 


Q1) What is Basalt rock?

Basalt is a common extrusive igneous rock that forms from the rapid cooling of lava at or near the Earth's surface. It is one of the most abundant types of rock on the Earth's crust and is known for its dark color, fine-grained texture, and durability.

Source: Gilbert Hill to be developed on the lines of Burj Khalifa: Mangal Lodha