Grand Cross of the Order of Honour

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The Indian Prime minister was recently conferred with the Grand Cross of the Order of Honour by the Greek President in Athens.

About Grand Cross of the Order of Honour:

  • It is the second-highest civilian honour in Greece.
  • It is conferred to "eminent personalities who by reason of their distinguished position, have contributed to enhancing the stature of Greece".
  • The Order of Honour was established in 1975.
  • The head of the goddess Athena is depicted on the front side of the Star with the inscription “ONLY THE RIGHTEOUS SHOULD BE HONOURED”.


Key Facts about Greece:

  • Location: It is located in southeastern Europe, on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula.
  • Official Name: Hellenic Republic
  • Bordering Countries:
    • The country is bordered by Albania, Bulgaria, Turkey, and North Macedonia. 
    • Greece shares maritime borders with Cyprus, Egypt, Italy, and Libya.
  • Geography:
    • The mainland has rugged mountains, forests, and lakes.
    • The country is well known for the thousands of islands dotting the blue Aegean Sea to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Ionian Sea to the west.
    • The largest Greek island is Crete.
  • Capital: Athens
  • History:
    • Greece is often referred to as the "cradle of Western civilization" because of its contributions to philosophy, democracy, and literature.
    • It was the home of famous ancient philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
    • During ancient times, the country was divided into city-states, which were ruled by noblemen. The largest were Athens, Sparta, Thebes, and Corinth.
    • Independence: Greece gained its independence from the Ottoman Empire in the early 19th century, following a war of independence that began in 1821.
  • Political System:  
    • It is a parliamentary republic with a head of government - the Prime Minister - who has the most political power, and the head of state - the president - whose duties are largely ceremonial.
    • The executive power is exercised by the government.
  • Languages: Spoken languages are Greek (official) and Turkish (predominantly spoken by a minority of Turks in Western Thrace).
  • Olympics:
    • The Olympic Games have their origins in ancient Greece, where the first Olympic Games were held in Olympia in 776 BC.
    • Greece also hosted the first modern Olympic Games in Athens in 1896.


Q1) What is a parliamentary republic?

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power and the head of state being a ceremonial position, similar to constitutional monarchies.

Source: Greece confers PM Modi with Grand Cross of the Order of Honour