Great Pyramid of Giza

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Overview:

A recent discovery of a mysterious structure buried beneath the sands near the iconic Great Pyramid of Giza might likely change the way we perceive these ancient structures.

About Great Pyramid of Giza:

  • The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Great Pyramid and Great Pyramid of Khufu, is an ancient Egyptian pyramid that is the largest of the three Pyramids of Giza.
  • Location: It is located on the Giza plateau, five miles to the west of the Nile River ,near the city of Cairo, Egypt.
  • It was built by Khufu (Cheops), the second king of Egypt’s 4th dynasty (c. 2575–c. 2465 BCE).
  • Its construction began around 2580 BC, shortly after Khufu became pharaoh, and was completed around 2560 BC.
  • Until the Eiffel Tower was completed in Paris, France, in 1889, the Great Pyramid was the tallest structure made by human hands in the world; a record it held for over 3,000 years.
  • The pyramid was first excavated using modern techniques and scientific analysis in 1880 by Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (l.1853-1942), the British archaeologist.
  • Features:
    • When the pyramid was built, it was around 481 feet tall. Today, because of erosion and the removal of the top piece, the pyramid is around 455 feet tall. At its base, each side is approximately 755 feet long. 
    • It is comprised of over two million blocks of stone. Each of the stone blocks is estimated to weigh over 2000 pounds (907 kg).
    • Inside the Great Pyramid are three major rooms: the King's Chamber, the Queen's Chamber, and the Grand Gallery. Small tunnels and air shafts lead to the chambers from the outside.
    • The pyramid’s sides rise at an angle of 51.87° and are accurately oriented to the four cardinal points of the compass.
    • The Great Pyramid’s core is made of yellowish limestone blocks, and the inner passages are of finer, light-coloured limestone.
    • The interior burial chamber is built of huge blocks of granite.

Key facts about the Pyramids of Giza:

  • These are three 4th-dynasty (c. 2575–c. 2465 BCE) pyramids erected on a rocky plateau on the west bank of the Nile River in northern Egypt. 
  • The designations of the pyramids—Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaurecorrespond to the kings for whom they were built.
  • The northernmost and oldest pyramid of the group was built for Khufu, the second king of the 4th dynasty.
  • The middle pyramid was built for Khafre, the fourth of the eight kings of the 4th dynasty.
  • The southernmost and last pyramid to be built was that of Menkaure, the fifth king of the 4th dynasty.
  • The Pyramids of Giza is the last remaining of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world.

Q1: What are the Seven Wonders of the ancient world?

These ancient wonders are Colossus of Rhodes, Great Pyramid of Giza, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Statue of Zeus at Olympia, Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, and Lighthouse of Alexandria. Of these wonders, 4 were destroyed by earthquake, 2 were destroyed by fire, and 1 is still standing. Pyramids of Giza are the only ancient wonders still standing today.

Source: Mysterious unknown structure discovered near Giza pyramids