Who was Guru Gobind Singh?

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Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti, or the Prakash Parv of the tenth Sikh Guru, is celebrated on January 17 this year.

About Guru Gobind Singh

  • He was the 10th and last human Guru of the Sikhs.
  • Born as Gobind Rai on December 22, 1666, in Patna, Bihar, Guru Gobind Singh was the son of the ninth Guru of Sikhism, Guru Teg Bahadur. 
  • He became the spiritual and temporal leader of the Sikhs on November 11, 1675, at the age of nine, following the martyrdom of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, at the hands of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in 1675.
  • He was renowned as a warrior, a poet, and a prophet. 
  • He is fondly remembered by Sikhs as a defender of the faith and a champion of equality and justice.
  • Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are founding the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa in 1699.
    • He introduced the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times. These are Kesh: uncut hair, Kangha: a wooden comb, Kara: an iron or steel bracelet worn on the wrist, Kirpan: a sword, and Kacchera: short breeches.
  • Throughout his life, he engaged in numerous battles against the Mughal Empire and their allies, totaling 21 battles.
    • Some of the notable battles include the Battle of Bhangani, the Battle of Nadaun, the Battle of Anandpur, the Battle of Chamkaur, the Battle of Muktsar, and the Battle of Khidrana.
  • He authored numerous literary works in various languages. Among his famous works are Jaap Sahib, the Tav-Prasad Savaiye, and the Benti Chaupai. 
  • He further codified Sikh law, wrote martial poetry and music, and was the reputed author of the Sikh work called the Dasam Granth (“Tenth Volume”).
  • Guru Gobind Singh proclaimed that he was the last of the personal Gurus. From that point forward, the Sikh Guru was to be the holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib (Sikh Holy Book).
  • He was assassinated in 1708, at the age of 41. 
  • His birth anniversary is called Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti, and his death anniversary is called Guru Gaddi Diwas.

Q1) What is the Guru Granth Sahib?

The Guru Granth Sahib, also known as the Adi Granth, is the primary Holy Book of the Sikhs. and is consulted for religious guidance in all aspects of life. Composed during the period of Sikh Gurus, from 1469 to 1708, the Guru Granth Sahib is a voluminous text of 1430 pages that was compiled by the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev (1563-1606), from hymns of the previous Sikh Gurus and other great saints of the Hindu and Muslim traditions.

Source: Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti 2024: History, wishes and timeless quotes by the last Guru of Sikhism