A new study shows that the rock and ash ejected during the Hunga-Tonga volcano eruption collapsed vertically and directly into the ocean and travelled as an extremely fast-moving and highly destructive underwater debris flow.
About Hunga-Tonga volcano:
- Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai is a volcanic island in Tonga.
- It is located about 30 km south of the submarine volcano of Fonuafoʻou and 65 km north of Tongatapu, the country's main island.
- The volcano is part of the highly active Tonga–Kermadec Islands volcanic arc, a subduction zone extending from New Zealand north-northeast to Fiji.
- The island arc is formed at the convergent boundary where the Pacific Plate subducts under the Indo-Australian Plate.
- It is along with the caldera rim of a much larger submarine edifice in the western South Pacific Ocean
- It has erupted regularly over the past few decades.
What is a volcano?
- It is an opening on the surface of a planet that allows material warmer than its surroundings to escape from its interior.
- When this material escapes, it causes an eruption which can be explosive in nature.
Q1) What is the Pacific Ring of Fire?
It is a horseshoe-shaped region in the Pacific Ocean basin characterized by a high level of tectonic and volcanic activity. It is known for its frequent earthquakes and numerous active volcanoes. This region encircles the Pacific Ocean and is associated with the boundaries of several tectonic plates, making it one of the most seismically active areas on Earth.