Kolam Tribes

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The Central government will extend basic facilities to the endangered Kolam tribe under the Jan Jati Adivasi Nyay Maha Abhiyan, with a focus on health and education.

About Kolam Tribes

  • Kolam tribes, also known as Kolamboli, Kulme and Kolmi, occupy a major portion of Madhya Pradesh.
  • The main concentration of this tribe is on the plains and in the mountainous region.
  • These tribal groups are reckoned as scheduled tribes and apart from Madhya Pradesh they reside in some parts of Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
  • They are listed as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG) in the state of Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
  • History:
    • Around the twelfth century, the Kolam served as priests for the Gond, representing some of their important gods.
    • It is generally accepted that the Kolam descended from the original population in the area.
    • Since they now live near the Gond, they have adopted much of the Gond lifestyle. 
  • The Kolam people are divided into different clans, like Chal Deve, Pach Deve, Saha Deve, and Sat Deve.
  • Marriages between the same clans are not permissible.
  • The Kolams use the name of their clans as their surnames.
  • Their society is patrilineal, meaning that the line of descent is traced through the males.
  • The Kolam are mainly farmers and forest workers. In times past, they used shifting cultivation on the hill slopes. Today, they primarily live as settled farmers and use plow cultivation.
  • They speak a Dravidian language called Kolami, and nearly all of the adults also speak Marathi, Telugu, or Gondi.
  • They also speak other languages like Marathi, Telugu or Gondi.
  • For writing, this Kolma tribal community uses the famous Devnagari script. 

Q1) What are Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)?

PVTGs are a more vulnerable group among tribal groups in India. These groups have primitive traits, geographical isolation, low literacy, zero to negative population growth rate and backwardness. Moreover, they are largely dependent on hunting for food and a pre-agriculture level of technology. Currently, there are 2.8 million PVTGs belonging to 75 tribes across 22,544 villages in 220 districts across 18 states and Union Territories in India. According to the 2011 Census, Odisha has the largest population of PVTGs at 866,000.