Launch Vehicle Mark- 3(LVM-3)

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Launch Vehicle Mark- 3(LVM-3) Blog Image


Recently, Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) LVM3 or GSLV-Mk3 successfully put into space 36 satellites of Bharti-backed OneWeb.

About Launch Vehicle Mark- 3(LVM-3):

  • It was previously known as the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mark–III.
  • The recent launching of 36 satellites was the sixth launch of India’s heaviest rocket LVM-3.
  • It was the second dedicated commercial satellite mission undertaken by Space PSU NewSpace India Limited (NSIL) for Network Access Associates Ltd (OneWeb).

What is GSLV?

  • It is a 3-stage space launch vehicle operated by the ISRO to launch satellites and other space objects into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits (GTO ~37,000 km).
  • The third stage of this vehicle uses a Cryogenic engine, which uses liquefied oxygen and hydrogen as fuel.
  • It has been designed for launching communication satellites.
  • GSLV delivers satellites into a higher elliptical orbit - GTO.

What is NewSpace India Limited (NSIL?

  • It is a Central Public Sector Enterprise established in 2019.
  • It is the second commercial entity of the Department of Space (DoS) after Antrix Corporation Limited, which was set up in 1992 to market the products and services of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
  • Mandate
    • Transfer technology to industry for producing commercially successful PSLV spacecraft launchers. 
    • Outsource assembly of small satellites and the upcoming Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV).
    • To commercially exploit the R&D work done by ISRO centres and DoS constituents.


Q1) What is a cryogenic engine?

A cryogenic engine/cryogenic stage is the last stage of space launch vehicles which makes use of cryogenics to store its fuel and oxidiser as liquids instead of gas. In space, there is a lack of air, including oxygen, which means it is impossible to burn anything.

Source: Isro's LVM-3 puts 36 satellites in orbit, and OneWeb completes completes LEO constellation