Leptospirosis

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Overview:

Odisha is reeling from Leptospirosis disease which has killed six people in the state so far.

About Leptospirosis:

  • It is a potentially fatal zoonotic bacterial disease.
  • The disease is caused by a bacterium called Leptospira interrogans, or Leptospira.
  • It is more prevalent in warm, humid countries and both urban and rural areas. 
  • It is a contagious disease in animals but is occasionally transmitted to humans in certain environmental conditions.
  • The carriers of the disease can be either wild or domestic animals, including rodents, cattle, pigs, and dogs.
  • The cycle of disease transmission begins with the shedding of Leptospira, usually in the urine of infected animals.
  • According to the U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, infected animals can continue to excrete the bacteria into their surroundings for a few months, but sometimes up to several years.
  • Leptospirosis may occur in two phases:
    • After the first phase (symptoms: fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, vomiting, or diarrhoea) the patient may recover for a time but become ill again.
    • If a second phase occurs, it is more severe; the person may have kidney or liver failure or meningitis.
    • Treatment: It can be treated with antibiotics.

 


Q1) What is zoonotic disease?

A zoonotic disease, also known as a zoonosis, is a type of infectious disease that can be transmitted between animals and humans. These diseases are caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that can be carried by animals and then transmitted to humans through various means.

Source: Odisha was hit by two major disease outbreaks. All you need to know about Scrub Typhus and leptospirosis.