Mount Kanlaon

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Hundreds of people sheltered in evacuation centres after Mount Kanlaon volcano erupted in the central Philippines recently.

About Mount Kanlaon:

  • It is a stratovolcano located in the north-central portion of the island of Negros, Philippines. 
  • It is the highest mountain on the island of Negros and the 42nd tallest peak on an island in the world.
  • It is one of the active volcanoes in the Philippines and part of thePacific Ring of Fire.
  • The volcano comprises a number of pyroclastic cones and craters.
  • The summit of Kanlaon volcano at an elevation of 2435 contains a broad, elongated caldera with a crater lake, with a smaller but more active crater to the south.
  • The base of Kanlaon covers an area of 30 km x 14 km. 
  • It is underlain by tropical volcanic materials composed of sheeted lava flows, lahar deposits, airfall tephra, and apron pyroclastic materials.
  • It is biologically diverse; and home to a number of species of Flora and Fauna.
  • The slopes are also headwater catchments of major river systems on the entire Negros Island.
  • Kanlaon has erupted several times since 1886 and typically comprise phreatic explosions of small to moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano.

What is a Phreatic Eruption?

  • A phreatic eruption is made up of steam-driven explosions that occur when water beneath the ground or on the surface is heated by volcanic activity.
  • The water, once heated, begins to boil or can even flash straight to steam, causing an explosion.
  • Phreatic eruptions can often precede, accompany, or follow a more traditional volcanic eruption.
  • Groundwater can often be found near volcanic vents, and as the magma rises to the surface of the earth, it heats the groundwater and causes these phreatic eruptions.

Q1: What is a Stratovolcano?

The stratovolcano is a tall, steep, and cone-shaped type of volcano. Unlike flat-shield volcanoes, they have higher peaks. At their peak, stratovolcanoes usually have a small crater. The crater may be filled with water or ice, or it may contain a volcanic dome during a period of relative inactivity. Stratovolcanoes comprise the largest percentage (~60%) of the Earth's individual volcanoes, and most are characterized by eruptions of andesite and dacite, lavas that are cooler and more viscous than basalt.

Source: Hundreds in emergency shelters after volcano erupts in Philippines