National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO)

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Overview:

All cases of organ transplants will be allocated a unique National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO)-ID for both the donor and the recipient, according to a recent directive by the Union Health Ministry.

Why in News?

  • The Union Health Ministry has issued the directive to eliminate commercial dealings in organs, especially those involving foreign citizens.
  • NOTTO-ID is mandatory for considering allocation of organs in the case of a deceased donor transplant; this ID in the case of a living donor transplant shall also be generated at the earliest, maximum within 48 hours after the transplant surgery is done.
  • NOTTO-ID must be generated by the hospital from the NOTTO website.
  • It has also called for stricter monitoring of such transplants by the local authorities.

About National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO)

  • NOTTO is a national levelorganization set up under the Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.
  • It functions as the apex centre for all India activities of coordination and networking for:
    • procurement and distribution of organs and tissues; and
    • registry of Organs and Tissues Donation and Transplantation in the country.
  • It has following two divisions:
  • National Human Organ and Tissue Removal and Storage Network:
    • It would function as the apex centre for all India activities of coordination and networking for the procurement and distribution of Organs and Tissues and registry of Organs and Tissues Donation and Transplantation in the country.
    • This has been mandated as per the Transplantation of Human Organs (Amendment) Act 2011.
  • National Biomaterial Centre (National Tissue Bank):
    • The Transplantation of Human Organs (Amendment) Act 2011 has included the component of tissue donation and registration of tissue Banks.
    • The main thrust and objective of establishing the centre is to fill up the gap between ‘Demand’ and ‘Supply’ as well as ‘Quality Assurance’ in the availability of various tissues.
    • Activities: Coordinationfortissue procurement and distribution; Donor Tissue Screening; Removal of Tissues and Storage; Preservations of Tissue; Laboratory screening of Tissues; Tissue Tracking; Sterilization, Records maintenance; Data Protection and Confidentiality; Quality Management in tissues; Patient Information on tissues; Development of Guidelines; Protocols and Standard Operating Procedures; Trainings, Assisting as per requirement in registration of other Tissue Banks.

Q1: What is a Tissue?

It is an aggregation of cells that function together and have a similar function. The cells of a multicellular organism do not usually function independently, instead they are usually associated with other cells forming a tissue. Mostly, tissues are made up of several types of cells that cover different requirements of tissue function. The study of tissues is called histology.

Source: All cases of organ transplants, whether from living or deceased donor, to be given unique NOTTO-ID