Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya

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The Prime Minister recently paid tribute to Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya on his jayanti at a function at Parliament.

About Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya:

  • Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya was born on December 25, 1861, in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. He is known for his contribution to India's education system and his role in the Indian Independence movement.
  • Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya was given the title of 'Mahamana' or great soul by Mahatma Gandhi, who considered him as an elder brother.
  • In 2014, Pandit Malviya was posthumously conferred with Bharat Ratna, the country’s highest civilian award.
  • In 2016, the Indian Railways started the Varanasi-New Delhi Mahamana Express in the leader’s honour.

Major contributions:

  • Banaras Hindu University: He played a key role in the Indian independence struggle against British rule and founded the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in 1916. At the BHU, he served as Vice-Chancellor from 1919 to 1938.
  • Hindu Mahasabha: Malaviya was one of the early leaders of the Hindu Mahasabha, and helped found it in 1906. He was a social reformer and a successful legislator, serving as a member of the Imperial Legislative Council for 11 years (1909–20).
  • Scout and Guide: He was also one of the founders of Scout and Guide in India.
  • 'Satyamev Jayate': One of the most famous slogans, 'Satyamev Jayate' was said by Pandit Malviya in the session of 1918 when he was the President of the Indian National Congress.
  • President of INC: Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya was the President of Indian National Congress for four sessions (1909, 1913, 1919 and 1932). Pandit Malviya played a big role in the Civil Disobedience and Non-cooperation movement which were led by Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Role in media: He was the chairman of Hindustan Times from 1924 to 1946 and he also founded many Hindi and English newspapers, namely: The Leader, Hindustan Dainik, Maryada etc.
  • Malaviya espoused free and compulsory primary education, opposed the system of indentured labour in the British Empire, and supported the nationalisation of railways.



Q1) Who was the first to receive the Bharat Ratna award?

Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian honor, given for exceptional service towards the advancement of Art, Literature and Science, and in recognition of Public Service of the highest order. The First Bharat Ratna was awarded to 3 individuals viz. Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, Sir C.V. Raman, and Independence activist Chakravarti Rajagopalachari in 1954.

Source: PM pays tribute to Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya at Parliament