What are Peptides?

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Scientists have developed a promising therapy using cow-derived peptides to combat deadly drug-resistant bacteria, offering a new approach to tackle severe infections resistant to conventional antibiotics.

About Peptides:

  • Peptides are chains of amino acids that are naturally found in the body.
  • The amino acids in a peptide are connected to one another in a sequence by bonds called peptide bonds.
  • Peptides vs. Protiens:
    • Proteins and peptides are fundamental components of cells that carry out important biological functions
    • Typically, peptides are distinguished from proteins by their shorter length, although the cut-off number of amino acids for defining a peptide and protein can be arbitrary.
    • Traditionally, peptides are defined as molecules that consist of between 2 and 50 amino acids.
    • Meanwhile, proteins are long molecules made up of multiple peptide subunits, and are also known as polypeptides.
    • In addition, peptides tend to be less well defined in structure than proteins, which can adopt complex conformations known as secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. 
    • Proteins can be digested by enzymes (other proteins) into short peptide fragments.
  • Functions of Peptides:
    • The body makes lots of different peptides, each of which has a different role.
    • They may provide pro-aging support, anti-inflammatory, or muscle-building properties.
    • Some peptides act as hormones, which are molecules, that when released from cells, affect other areas of the body.
    • Due to the potential health benefits of peptides, many supplements are available that contain peptides that manufacturers have derived either from food or made synthetically.

What are Amino Acids?

  • Amino acids are molecules that combine to form proteins.
  • Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life.
  • There are 20 different amino acids.
  • A protein consists of one or more chains of amino acids (called polypeptides) whose sequence is encoded in a gene.
  • Some amino acids can be synthesized in the body, but others (essential amino acids)cannot and must be obtained from a person’s diet.

The nine essential amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

Q1: What is a Gene?

A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes are made up of DNA. Some genes act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. However, many genes do not code for proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases.

Source: Newly Discovered Peptide Could Treat Incurable Bacterial Infections