Punnett square

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Punnett squares are a way to predict the possible genetic outcomes of the offspring when two individuals with known genotypes are crossed.

About Punnett square: 

  • The Punnett Square is named after British geneticist Reginald Punnett.

How does it work?

  • Along the top and side of the grid the possible genetic traits of one parent on one side and the other parent on the other side is listed.
  • Then, you fill in the squares by combining the traits from each parent. Each square effectively represents a possible combination of traits that their offspring could inherit.
  • It’s a simple way to visualise the probabilities of different traits showing up in the offspring.


  • Punnett Squares are commonly used in biology to understand inheritance patterns, like when you learn about dominant and recessive genes in school.
  • It is a useful tool that helps predict the variations and probabilities resulting from cross-breeding.
  • It can also be used to understand the genetic traits in the offspring of animals, including humans.
  • Researchers typically use them together with Mendelian inheritance.

Q1:What is Genetic engineering?

It refers to the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using advanced DNA technology. It involves the introduction, deletion or modification of genes within an organism's DNA to produce desirable traits.

Source: Punnett square: A genetics puzzle