What is Quantum Computing?

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Overview:

Researchers have unveiled a novel approach that integrates quantum computing with the study of living organisms.

About Quantum Computing

  • It is an area of computer science focused on the development of technologies based on the principles of quantum theory.
  • Quantum theory explains the behaviour of energy and material at the atomic and subatomic levels.
  • It is based on the principles of the superposition of matter and quantum entanglement and uses a different computation method from the traditional one.
  • Quantum computers have the capability to sift through huge numbers of possibilities and extract potential solutions to complex problems and challenges. 
  • How does it work?
    • Where classical computers store information as bits with either 0s or 1s, quantum computers use qubits.
    • While classical bits always represent either one or zero, a qubit can be in a superposition of one and zero simultaneously until its state is measured.
    • In addition, the states of multiple qubits can be entangled, meaning that they are linked quantum mechanically to each other. 
    • Qubits can be made by manipulating atoms, electrically charged atoms called ions, or electrons, or by nanoengineering so-called artificial atoms, such as circuits of superconducting qubits, using a printing method called lithography.

What is Superposition and Entanglement?

  • They are two features of quantum physics on which quantum computing is based. 
  • They empower quantum computers to handle operations at speeds exponentially higher than conventional computers and with much less energy consumption.
  • Superposition:
    • A qubit places the quantum information that it contains into a state of superposition. 
    • This refers to a combination of all possible configurations of the qubit. 
    • Groups of qubits in superposition can create complex, multidimensional computational spaces. 
    • Complex problems can be represented in new ways in these spaces.
  • Entanglement:
    • Pairs of qubits can be made to become entangled. 
    • This means that the two qubits then exist in a single state. 
    • In such a state, changing one qubit directly affects the other in a manner that's predictable.
    • Quantum algorithms are designed to take advantage of this relationship to solve complex problems. 
    • While doubling the number of bits in a classical computer doubles its processing power, adding qubits results in an exponential upswing in computing power and ability.

Q1) What is a bit?

A bit is a binary digit, the smallest increment of data on a computer. A bit can hold only one of two values: 0 or 1, corresponding to the electrical values of off or on, respectively.

Source: Quantum computing can help decode the mysteries of aging and disease