# What is Quantum Computing?

27-01-2024

1 min read

### Overview:

#### Researchers have unveiled a novel approach that integrates quantum computing with the study of living organisms.

## About Quantum Computing

- It is an area of computer science focused on the development of technologies based on the principles of quantum theory.
- Quantum theory explains the behaviour of energy and material at the atomic and subatomic levels.
- It is based on the principles of the superposition of matter and quantum entanglement and uses a different computation method from the traditional one.
- Quantum computers have the capability to sift through huge numbers of possibilities and extract potential solutions to complex problems and challenges.
- How does it work?
- Where classical computers store information as bits with either 0s or 1s, quantum computers use qubits.
- While classical bits always represent either one or zero, a qubit can be in a superposition of one and zero simultaneously until its state is measured.
- In addition, the states of multiple qubits can be entangled, meaning that they are linked quantum mechanically to each other.
- Qubits can be made by manipulating atoms, electrically charged atoms called ions, or electrons, or by nanoengineering so-called artificial atoms, such as circuits of superconducting qubits, using a printing method called lithography.

## What is Superposition and Entanglement?

- They are two features of quantum physics on which quantum computing is based.
- They empower quantum computers to handle operations at speeds exponentially higher than conventional computers and with much less energy consumption.
- Superposition:
- A qubit places the quantum information that it contains into a state of superposition.
- This refers to a combination of all possible configurations of the qubit.
- Groups of qubits in superposition can create complex, multidimensional computational spaces.
- Complex problems can be represented in new ways in these spaces.

- Entanglement:
- Pairs of qubits can be made to become entangled.
- This means that the two qubits then exist in a single state.
- In such a state, changing one qubit directly affects the other in a manner that's predictable.
- Quantum algorithms are designed to take advantage of this relationship to solve complex problems.
- While doubling the number of bits in a classical computer doubles its processing power, adding qubits results in an exponential upswing in computing power and ability.

### Q1) What is a bit?

A bit is a binary digit, the smallest increment of data on a computer. A bit can hold only one of two values: 0 or 1, corresponding to the electrical values of off or on, respectively.

**Source: **__Quantum computing can help decode the mysteries of aging and disease__