What is Semiconductor fabrication?

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What is Semiconductor fabrication? Blog Image


Recently, the Union Cabinet approved the country's first semiconductor fab to be made by the Tata Group in collaboration with Powerchip Taiwan.

About Semiconductor fabrication

  • A semiconductor fab -- short for fabrication -- is a manufacturing plant in which raw silicon wafers are turned into integrated circuits (ICs).
  • The process includes creating intricate patterns on the wafer using light and chemicals, depositing different materials to form components, and etching away unwanted materials.
  • This results in the formation of transistors, interconnects, and other elements that make up a semiconductor device.
  • Fabrication is a complex and precise process that requires specialized equipment and expertise.
  • A semiconductor fab facility always includes a clean room because its environment is carefully controlled to eliminate dust and vibrations and to keep the temperature and humidity within a specific narrow range.
  • Contamination can enter the fab environment through external sources, resulting in damages to products that can affect overall yield.

What kind of technology is used in fabs?

  • Photolithography:
    • It is a crucial step in semiconductor fabrication where patterns are transferred onto silicon wafers.
    • A photosensitive material, called photoresist, is applied to the wafer and exposed to light through a mask.
    • The exposed areas are chemically etched, creating the desired pattern. This process enables the precise definition of features on the wafer, enabling the creation of intricate circuitry.
  • Deposition techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD) to add thin layers of materials; etching processes to remove unwanted materials; and various metrology tools for inspection and measurement.

Q1) What are Semiconductors?

These are materials that have electrical conductivity between that of a conductor and an insulator. They are the foundation of modern electronics and power a vast array of technologies such as computers, smartphones, solar panels, and medical devices. 

Source: Cabinet approves 3 chip plants, including two by Tata, at estimated investment of Rs 1.26 lakh crore