Tuberculosis (TB)

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Overview:

Around 10.6 million people across the world were diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) in 2021, an increase of 4.5% from 2020, while 1.6 million patients died of the bacterial disease, according to the World Health Organization’s 2022 Global TB report.About: With 28% cases, India was among the eight countries accounting for more than two-third (or 68.3%) of the total TB patients’ count. The other countries were Indonesia (9.2% cases), China (7.4%), the Philippines (7%), Pakistan (5.8%), Nigeria (4.4

About Tuberculosis (TB):

  • With 28% cases, India was among the eight countries accounting for more than two-third (or 68.3%) of the total TB patients’ count.
  • The other countries were Indonesia (9.2% cases), China (7.4%), the Philippines (7%), Pakistan (5.8%), Nigeria (4.4%), Bangladesh (3.6%) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2.9%).
  • The burden of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) also increased by 3% globally between 2020 and 2021.
  • India was among the three countries — others being Indonesia and the Philippines — that accounted for most of the reduction in 2020 (67% of the global total).
  • They made partial recoveries in 2021, but still accounted for 60% of the global reduction compared with 2019, according to the report.

Tuberculosis (TB):

  • Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)that most often affect the lungs.
  • It is curable and preventable disease.
  • Two kinds of tuberculosis infection:
    • Latent TB- The bacteria remain in the body in an inactive state. They cause no symptoms and are not contagious, but they can become active.
    • Active TB - The bacteria do cause symptoms and can be transmitted to others.
    • About one-quarter of the world's population has latent TB.
    • People infected with TB bacteria have a 5–15% lifetime risk of falling ill with TB.
    • However, persons with compromised immune systems, such as people living with HIV, malnutrition or diabetes, or people who use tobacco, have a much higher risk of falling ill.
  • Transmission:
    • TB is spread from person to person through the air.
    • When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air.
    • Even after inhaling a few drops of these germ, a person can get infected.

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)

  • Drug resistance emerges when anti-TB medicines are used inappropriately, through incorrect prescription by health care providers, poor quality drugs, and patients stopping treatment prematurely.
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to first-line anti-TB drugs.
  • MDR-TB is treatable and curable by using second-line drugs.

 


Source : The Hindu