For the first time, periscopes on the Indian Navy’s attack submarines have been repaired and refurbished indigenously, with the Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO) in Chandigarh executing the project.
- It is an optical instrument used in land and sea warfare, submarine navigation, and elsewhere to enable an observer to see his surroundings while remaining undercover, behind armor, or submerged.
- Submarines have periscopes so that people inside can see what is on the surface of the water.
Construction and Working Principle:
- Periscopes can be constructed using a pair of flat mirrors or prisms and a rectangular hollow tube that has a viewing window at the top and bottom of the tube.
- The mirrors within this structure are fixed at an angle of 45o at the two ends of the rectangular hollow.
- A periscope is a useful example of the law of reflection at work. It’s important that your mirrors are placed at a 45° angle, because light always reflects away from a mirror at the same angle that it hits it.
- In a periscope, light from an object strikes the top mirror at 45° and bounces off at the same angle.
- This sends light directly down the tube and onto the lower mirror. This mirror, also at a 45° angle, reflects light directly to your eye.
- A simple periscope only requires mirrors, whereas a more complicated periscope utilizes prisms rather than mirrors.
- The periscopes used in submarine applications are complex, typically requiring the use of tubes that are at least 10 meters in length to achieve a greater range of scope.
Q1) What is the Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO)?
CSIO Chandigarh, is a constituent laboratory of the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), a national laboratory dedicated to research, design and development of scientific and industrial instruments. It is a multi-disciplinary and multi-dimensional apex industrial research & development organization in the country to stimulate growth of the Instrument Industry in India covering a wide range of applications.