What is Horizontal Reservation?

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Recently, the Governor of Uttarakhand gave the nod to a Bill that gives 30% reservation to the native women of the state.


  • The Uttarakhand Public Services (Horizontal Reservation for Women) Bill,2022, provides women with 30 per cent horizontal reservation in public services and posts, in addition to the existing quotas applicable in the state.
  • The beneficiaries need to be women with a domicile certificate of Uttarakhand.
  • If enough women are not available to fill the reserved seats, they will be filled with qualified male candidates in the order of proficiency.


What is Horizontal Reservation?

  • Horizontal reservation refers to the equal opportunity provided to other categories of beneficiaries such as women, veterans, the transgender community, and individuals with disabilities, cutting through the vertical categories.
    • For example, if women have 50 per cent horizontal quota, then half of the selected candidates will have to necessarily be women in each vertical quota category — i.e., half of all selected SC candidates will have to be women, half of the unreserved or general category will have to be women, and so on.
  • While a vertical reservation applies separately for each of the groups specified under the law, the horizontal quota is always applied separately to each vertical category, and not across the board.
    • Reservation for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes is referred to as vertical reservation.


Q1) What is vertical reservation?

Vertical reservation means reservations that are meant for Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. This type of reservation is applied separately for each of these groups specified under the law. For example, Article 16(4) is a type of vertical reservation.

Source:  Governor gave nod to 30% reservation in government jobs for Uttarakhand women