What is Thalassaemia?

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What is Thalassaemia? Blog Image

Overview:

World Thalassaemia Day is celebrated on May 8, every year.

About Thalassaemia:

  • It is the name for a group of inherited conditions that affect a substance in the blood called haemoglobin.
  • People with thalassaemiaproduce either no or too little haemoglobin, which is used by red blood cells to carry oxygen around the body.
  • Thalassemia can cause anaemia, leaving you fatigued.
  • It mainly affects people of Mediterranean, south Asian, southeast Asian and Middle Eastern origin.
  • Cause:
    • It is caused by faulty genes that affect the production of haemoglobin.
    • A child can only be born with thalassaemiaif they inherit these faulty genes from both parents.
    • It's also possible to be a "carrier" of thalassaemia, also known as having the thalassaemia trait.
  • Symptoms: The main health conditions associated with thalassaemia are,
    • Anaemia – severe tiredness, weakness, shortness of breath, pounding, fluttering or irregular heartbeats (palpitations) and pale skin caused by the lack of haemoglobin.
    • Too much iron in the body – this is caused by the regular blood transfusions used to treat anaemia and can cause problems with the heart, liver and hormone levels if untreated
    • Some people may also have delayed growth, weak and fragile bones (osteoporosis), and reduced fertility.
  • Treatments:
    • Blood transfusions – regular blood transfusions treat and prevent anaemia; in severe cases these are needed around once a month.
    • Chelation therapy – treatment with medicine to remove the excess iron from the body that builds up as a result of having regular blood transfusions
    • The only possible cure for thalassaemia is a stem cell or bone marrow transplant, but this is not done very often because of the risks involved.

 


Q1) What is the function of haemoglobin?

Hemoglobin is a two-way respiratory carrier, transporting oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and facilitating the return transport of carbon dioxide. In the arterial circulation, hemoglobin has a high affinity for oxygen and a low affinity for carbon dioxide, organic phosphates, and hydrogen and chloride ions. In the venous circulation, these relative affinities are reversed.

Source: World Thalassaemia Day 2023: Date, history, significance, theme