What is the Indus Waters Treaty?

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What is the Indus Waters Treaty? Blog Image


India recently made a proposal to Pakistan to hold a meeting to discuss the potential renegotiation of the Indus Waters Treaty.

About Indus Waters Treaty:


  • It was signed in September 1960 between India and Pakistan.
  • The treaty was brokered by the World Bank, which, too is a signatory to the treaty.
  • Provisions:
    • The treaty fixed and delimited the rights and obligations of both countries concerning the use of the waters of the Indus River system.
    • It gives control over the waters of the three "eastern rivers' -- the Beas, Ravi, and Sutlej -- to India, while control over the waters of the three "western rivers' ' -- the Indus, Chenab, and Jhelum -- to Pakistan.
    • The Treaty allows India to use the western river waters for limited irrigation use and unlimited non-consumptive use for such applications as power generation, navigation, floating of property, fish culture, etc.
    • It lays down detailed regulations for India in building projects over the western rivers.
    • The Treaty sets out a mechanism for cooperation and information exchange between the two countries regarding their use of the rivers, known as the Permanent Indus Commission, which has a Commissioner from each country


Q1) Which are the main tributaries of the Indus River?

Its principal left-bank tributaries include the Zanskar River, Suru River, Soan River, Jhelum River, Chenab River, Ravi River, Beas River, Satluj River, and Panjnad River. Its principal right-bank tributaries include the Shyok River, Gilgit River, Hunza River, Swat River, Kunnar River, Kurram River, Gomal River, and Kabul River.

Source: India’s call for dialogue: Exploring the potential renegotiation of the Indus Water Treaty with Pakistan