Geography Optional Coaching at Chennai

by Vajiram & Ravi


06:07 AM

Date of Commencement

19th July




20 Weeks


Rs. 36,000 (Incl. GST)

Course Time

5:30 PM to 08:00 PM

Geography Optional Coaching at Chennai

About UPSC Geography Optional

Geography as an Optional Subject for UPSC has consistently generated excellent outcomes in the Civil Services Exam. The subject is a good choice for the optionals for a number of reasons. It is a subject that is both scientific and humanistic, multifaceted, complex, and nuanced. Because of this, it's a suitable option for engineers, doctors, and aspirants with an educational background in the arts. All that is required is an analytical mindset.

Part 1 of Paper 1 focuses on Physical Geography under which aspirants have to learn about geomorphology, climatology, oceanography, biogeography, and environment geography. Part 2 of Paper 1 of UPSC Geography Optional is devoted to human geography, and aspirants must be familiar with the subject's perspectives on economic geography, population & settlement geography, regional planning, and models, theories, and laws in human geography.

In Paper 2, aspirants must be familiar with India's geography, such as its physical setting, resources, agriculture, industry, transportation, communication, and trade, as well as its cultural setting, settlements, regional development and planning, political aspects, and current issues.

Aspirants can enhance the presentation of their answers by using several maps, diagrams, flow charts, tables, etc. This optional subject also includes a lot of crossover with topics like economics, environment, disaster management, and conservation. It also covers a significant portion of Mains General Studies Paper-I directly and a significant portion of Mains General Studies Paper-III indirectly.

Further, Geography will be helpful even in the UPSC Personality Test because the board may ask questions on the local geography of a candidate's hometown, such as the soil, plants, minerals, etc.

Download:Geography Syllabus for UPSC

Features of Geography Optional Coaching

We, at Vajiram and Ravi, are providing the Geography Optional Coaching with the help of which students can study the syllabus under expert guidance. Some of the features of the Geography optional coaching classes are as follows:

  • The batch is going to commence from 19th July 2024 onwards. Class timings will be 5:30 P.M to 8:00 P.M.
  • It is a 20-week programme available in Classroom Mode at Anna Nagar, Chennai Centre.
  • The total fee of the Geography Optional course including GST is Rs.36,000/-.


Geography Optional Syllabus


Physical Geography:

  1. Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Land scape development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology; Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.
  2. Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.
  3. Oceanography: Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.
  4. Biogeography: Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry, agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
  5. Environmental Geography: Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and

Human Geography:

  1. Perspectives in Human Geography: Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.
  2. Economic Geography: World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.
  3. Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanisation; Sustainable development of cities.
  4. Regional Planning: Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies; Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
  5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: System analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.


  1. Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.
  2. Resources: Land, surface and groundwater, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources, Forest and wildlife resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
  3. Agriculture : Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilisers, power; Institutional factors; land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture and
    poultry; Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agro-ecological regions.
  4. Industry: Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and ago-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector underkings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.
  5. Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy;Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
  6. Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; Cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, interregional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
  7. Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; Town planning; Problems of urbanisation and remedies.
  8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.
  9. Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; International boundary of India and related issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
  10. Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

NOTE: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.

Geography Optional Syllabus

Is Geography a good optional in the UPSC for Agriculture graduates?

Yes, there are many chapters of Paper-2 that overlap with Agriculture. In Paper-1 agriculture is a part of economic geography. Knowledge of agriculture can be helpful in the study of regional and rural development planning.

What is the strategy for Geography Optional for UPSC?

A 3-step strategy can be followed for Geography Optional preparation:

  • Foundation and basic readings - NCERT and G.C.Leong and Atlas
  • Standard books according to the syllabus
  • Revision, short notes, and answer writing practice

This should be accompanied by PYQ and synopsis notes.

Is taking Geography as an Optional Subject easy for UPSC?

If the subject is approached with the right strategy and guidance is very easy to study and revise. Geography is a scientific and logical subject and should be treated interdisciplinarily. If the student has an inclination towards understanding differences and contrasts this subject will be easy.

What is the pattern for UPSC Geography Optional?

Geography Optional consists of 2 papers each of 250 marks (Total 500)

  1. The syllabus is of graduation and post-graduation level
  2. Paper 1 is Principles of Geography - this is the theory part and has geographical thought
  3. Paper 2 is Applied Geography - Indian Geography

Which topics are important in the Geography Optional?

There is a certain weightage allocated to every chapter in the UPSC exam. But we can identify topics that are more important as they provide a strong foundation for the subject. These are chapters from Paper 1, like geomorphology, climatology, biogeography, perspectives, population and settlement and models and theories. In Paper 2, chapters like physical settling, agriculture, cultural setting, and settlements are important.


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