Consider the following statements in respect of Probiotics. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


05:23 AM

UPSC Prelims 2022 Question:

Consider the following statements in respect of probiotics:

  1. Probiotics are made both of bacteria and yeast.
  2. The organisms in probiotics are found in foods we ingest but they do not naturally occur in our gut.
  3. Probiotics help in the digestion of milk sugars.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 1 and 3

d) 2 and 3

Correct Answer: Option c) 1 and 3

Learn more about Probiotics in the given explanation below.


  • Probiotics are live microorganisms that are intended to have health benefits when consumed or applied to the body. They can be found in yogurt and other fermented foods, dietary supplements, and beauty products. Although people often think of bacteria and other microorganisms as harmful “germs,” many are actually helpful. Some bacteria help digest food, destroy disease-causing cells, or produce vitamins.
  • Probiotics may contain a variety of microorganisms. The most common are bacteria that belong to groups called Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Other bacteria may also be used as probiotics, and so may yeasts such as Saccharomyces boulardii. Many of the microorganisms in probiotic products are the same as or similar to microorganisms that naturally live in our bodies.So, statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is not correct.
  • L. acidophilus is a probiotic bacterium that naturally occurs in the human gut and other parts of the body. This bacterium helps the digestive system break down sugars, such as lactose, into lactic acid. So, statement 3 is correct.

Health Benefits of Consuming Probiotics

Probiotics, the live microorganisms found in fermented foods and supplements, offer a range of health benefits:

  • Gastrointestinal health: Probiotics can alleviate symptoms of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and constipation by restoring the balance of gut bacteria.
  • Skin health: Probiotics may reduce the severity of acne, rosacea, and other skin disorders by modulating immune responses and reducing inflammation.
  • Mental health: A healthy gut microbiome is linked to improved mental health. Probiotics may aid in the treatment of depression, autism spectrum disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) by reducing stress and anxiety and improving memory.
  • Inflammation: Probiotics can reduce inflammation throughout the body, potentially lowering the risk of chronic diseases such as arthritis and heart disease.
  • Weight management: Certain probiotic strains may promote weight loss by preventing the absorption of dietary fats in the intestines.
  • Gut microbiome balance: Probiotics maintain a natural balance of beneficial bacteria in the gut, ensuring optimal digestive and immune function.
  • Cardiovascular health: Probiotics may contribute to heart health by lowering LDL (bad) cholesterol and blood pressure levels.

Therefore, option (c) is the correct answer.

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