# In the northern hemisphere, the longest day of the year normally occurs in the

31-01-2024

05:23 AM

UPSC Prelims 2022 Question:

In the northern hemisphere, the longest day of the year normally occurs in the:

a) First half of the month of June

b) Second half of the month of June

c) First half of the month of July

d) Second half of the month of July

## Correct Answer: Option b) second half of the month of June

Explanation:

• The longest day of 2021 for those living north of the Equator is June 21. In technical terms, this day is referred to as the summer solstice, the longest day of the summer season. It occurs when the sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer, or more specifically right over 23.5-degree north latitude. This will happen around 9:02 am on Monday (Indian Standard Time).
• During the solstice, the Earth’s axis — around which the planet spins, completing one turn each day — is tilted in a way that the North Pole is tipped towards the sun and the South Pole is away from it.

## Summer Solstice

• The longest day of the year is called the summer solstice. It occurs on June 20 or 21 in the Northern Hemisphere and December 21 or 22 in the Southern Hemisphere. The summer solstice is the day with the longest period of daylight and the shortest night of the year. This is because the Earth's axis is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degrees relative to its orbital plane around the Sun. This tilt causes the Sun to appear higher in the sky during the summer months and lower in the sky during the winter months. At the summer solstice, the Sun reaches its highest point in the sky at the Tropic of Cancer (23.5 degrees north latitude) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 degrees south latitude).
• The length of daylight on the summer solstice varies depending on the latitude. At the Arctic Circle (66.5 degrees north latitude), the Sun does not set on the summer solstice, and there is 24 hours of daylight. At the Equator (0 degrees latitude), there is 12 hours of daylight on the summer solstice, regardless of the time of year. At the Antarctic Circle (66.5 degrees south latitude), the Sun does not rise on the summer solstice, and there is 24 hours of darkness.

Therefore, option (b) is the correct answer.

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