The crucial aspect of development process has been the inadequate attention paid to Human Resource Development in India. Suggest measures that can address this adequacy.


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The question “The crucial aspect of development process has been the inadequate attention paid to Human Resource Development in India. Suggest measures that can address this adequacy." was asked in the Mains 2023 GS Paper 2.  Let us look at the model answer to this question.

Answer: Development refers to a multidimensional and holistic process aimed at improving the well-being and quality of life of a society's population. Development processes are the systematic and organized steps, actions, and strategies taken by governments, institutions, communities, and individuals to achieve and sustain development goals.

Inadequate Attention to Human Resource Development in India

  • Education Disparities: there is unequal access to quality education and resources.There is rural-urban, and male-female divide in access to education.
  • Skill Shortages: Skill gaps in the workforce hinder employability and productivity.
    • For example, only around 5 % of the workforce in India has received formal skill training.
  • Lack of Lifelong Learning Culture: Absence of continuous skill development culture leads to redundancy of skills in a dynamic work environment.
  • Insufficient Investment: Historically, there has been inadequate public and private investment in education, healthcare, and skill development. This has hindered the development of human capital.
    • For example, only 0.7% of GDP is spent on R&D.
  • Insufficient Policy Focus: There is a lack of comprehensive and coordinated policies specifically addressing HRD challenges and opportunities in India.

Measures that can address the inadequacy of attention to Human Resource Development (HRD) in India

  • Education and Skill Development: Transform the education system to prioritize practical skills and problem-solving over memorization through early vocational training.
    • For example, Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) in India provides skill development courses across sectors, promoting employability and practical learning.
  • Skill Development and Workforce Enhancement: Extend skill development programs across industries and offer credible certifications.
  • Research, Innovation, and Technology Adoption: Invest in research to drive innovation and foster ties between academia and industry.
    • For example, ISRO established the National Research Foundation.
  • Gender Equality and Social Inclusion: Promote gender equality in education and employment through policies and incentives.
  • Health and Wellbeing: Ensure affordable, quality healthcare with robust infrastructure.
    • For example, the Ayushman Bharat program can be broadened to create health infrastructure, especially for economically vulnerable populations.

Addressing the inadequacy of HRD in India requires a multi-pronged approach involving government policies, educational institutions, the private sector, and civil society. Continuous commitment and sustained efforts are necessary to bridge the gap and ensure the development of a skilled and capable workforce.