The question “What are the internal security challenges being faced by India? Give out the role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies tasked to counter such threats." was asked in the Mains 2023 GS Paper 3. Let us look at the model answer to this question.
Answer: Internal security refers to the measures and actions taken by a government or a nation to safeguard its territory, citizens, institutions, and resources from threats, risks, and challenges that originate within its borders.
Internal Security Challenges:
- Secessionist & separatist movements (e.g., J&K, North East, Punjab).
- Left-wing extremism (LWE) in 11 states.
- Caste crimes, religious conflicts, communal tensions.
- Trans-border illegal immigration (Bangladesh, Myanmar) causing conflicts.
- Challenges that do not see boundaries:
- Terrorism (State & non-state)
- Organized Crime (Drugs, trafficking)
- Cybersecurity (Infrastructure, privacy)
Role of Investigating Agencies in addressing these Internal Security threats:
- Terrorism: Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies are pivotal in detecting, preventing, and mitigating terrorist activities.
- NIA: Deal with the investigation of crimes.
- Intelligence Bureau: An apex intelligence body that collects and collates information within the country and also executes counter intelligence and counter-terrorism operations.
- Research and Analysis Wing (RAW): Conducts counter-terrorism operations
- National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID): Using ICT, track down suspected terrorists and prevent terrorist attacks.
- National Counter-Terrorism Center (NCTC): Coordinate all counter-terrorism measures.
- Central agencies provides assistance in training, modernization and upgradation of the State Police and their Intelligence apparatus
- Sharing of Intelligence;
- Facilitating inter-State coordination;
- Insurgency: Intelligence agencies,RAW and IB, in coordination with the military's intelligence units, play an integral role in surveillance, counter-insurgency operations, and crisis management.
- The National Security Guard (NSG) leads counter-terrorism operations, while the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) assists in maintaining law and order.
- Border Security : The Border Security Force (BSF), Assam Rifles, and other paramilitary forces work with intelligence agencies to fortify borders, combat smuggling, and infiltrations.
- Border Protection Grid: To be set up in Indian states bordering Bangladesh.
- Cyber Threats: Cyber Crime Units and specialized cyber cells focus on combating cybercrime,
- National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) to safeguard the Critical infrastructure.
- Counterintelligence: Intelligence Bureau and RAW monitor and counter espionage and foreign intelligence threats.
- Economic Crimes: Enforcement Directorate(ED) and Central Bureau of Intelligence (CBI) investigate and prosecute economic crimes and corruption cases.
- Example, scandals like Vyapam scam were exposed.
Central intelligence and investigative agencies, along with state police forces and armed forces, collaborate to address these multifaceted internal security threats and maintain the country’s security and stability which is important to achieve the goal of Developed Bharat by 2047.