UPSC Prelims 2023 Question:
Who among the following rulers of medieval Gujarat surrendered Diu to the Portuguese?
a) Ahmad Shah
b) Mahmud Begarha
c) Bahadur Shah
c) Muhammad Shah
Correct Answer: Option c) Bahadur Shah
Learn more about the surrender of Diu to the Portuguese in the given explanation below.
- In view of the growing Portuguese threat to the Gujarat trade and coastal areas, the sultan of Gujarat sent an embassy to the Ottoman ruler, congratulating him on his victories, and seeking his support. In return, the Ottoman ruler expressed a desire to combat the infidels, that is, the Portuguese, who had disturbed the shores of Arabia. From this time on, there was a continuous exchange of embassies and letters between the two countries.
Surrender of Diu to the Portuguese
- The Turks ousted the Portuguese from the Red Sea, and in 1529, a strong fleet under Sulaiman Rais was dispatched to aid Bahadur Shah, the ruler of Gujarat. Bahadur Shah received it well, and two of the Turkish officials, who were given Indian names, were appointed governors of Surat and Diu, respectively. Of these two, Rumi Khan was later to earn a great name for himself as a master-gunner.
- In 1531, after intriguing with local officials, the Portuguese attacked Daman and Diu but the Ottoman commander, Rumi Khan, repulsed the attack. However, the Portuguese built a fort at Chaul lower down the coast.
- Before the Gujarat–Turkish alliance could be consolidated, a bigger threat to Gujarat appeared from the side of the Mughals. Humayun attacked Gujarat. In order to meet this threat, Bahadur Shah granted the island of Bassein to the Portuguese. A defensive-offensive alliance against the Mughals was also concluded, and the Portuguese were allowed to build a fort at Diu. Thus were the Portuguese able to establish their foothold in Gujarat.
- Bahadur Shah soon repentedhis concessions to the Portuguese. Following the expulsion of the Mughals from Gujarat, he once again appealed to the Ottoman sultan for help, and tried to limit the Portuguese encroachments at Diu. During the negotiations, Bahadur Shah who was aboard one of the ships the governor of the fort suspected treachery. In the scuffle which ensued, the Portuguese governor was killed and Bahadur Shah drowned while swimming ashore. This was in 1536.
Therefore, option (c) is the correct answer.
Subject: History|Early Medieval Period
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