Recently, NASA's Earth Observatory posted a detailed analysis of the reason behind Aral Sea's disappearance.
About Aral Sea
- It stands at the boundary between Kazakhstan to the north and Uzbekistan to the south.
- It was once a large saltwater lake of Central Asia and the world’s fourth largest body of inland water.
- The remnants of it nestle in the climatically inhospitable heart of Central Asia, to the east of the Caspian Sea.
- The Aral Sea depression was formed toward the end of the Neogene Period (which lasted from about 23 to 2.6 million years ago).
- It was made by waters from the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya rivers that were dependent on glacial melt.
- It drains Uzbekistan and portions of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, and Kyrgyzstan.
- Climate: The Aral Sea is located within the harsh climate region of Central Asia. The area experiences a desert-continental climate, characterized by hot summers, cold winters, and varying diurnal air temperature.
- Reason for its disappearance
- According to the space agency, in 1960 the Soviet Union undertook a major water diversion project where they diverted the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya rivers for irrigation projects.
- Though the project made the desert region surrounding the sea bloom, it had a devastating impact on the Aral Sea.
- The waterbody slowly started drying up and today it is on the verge of complete disappearance.
Q1) What is Evaporation?
Evaporation is the process by which a liquid turns into a gas. It is also one of the three main steps in the global water cycle.