Key Facts about Aravalli Range

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The Supreme Court recently opined that if the State of Rajasthan believes that the mining activities in the Aravali Range pose a threat to the environment, it can also prevent mining activities in the Aravalli Range.

About Aravalli Range

  • It is a mountain range located in northwestern India.
  • It is one of the oldest fold mountains in the world.
  • It runs approximately 670 km (430 mi) in a south-west direction, starting near Delhi, passing through southern Haryana and Rajasthan, and ending in Gujarat.
  • The range contains a series of ridges and peaks, which have widths between 6 miles and 60 miles, and elevations that vary between 1,000 and 3,000 feet.
  • The highest point of the Aravalli range is Guru Shikhar, which stands at an elevation of 5,650 feet on Mount Arbuda. 
    • It is 15 km from Mount Abu, which is a popular hill station in the Aravalli Range.
  • Rivers: Three major rivers and their tributaries flow from the Aravalli, namely the Banas and Sahibi rivers, which are tributaries of the Yamuna, as well as the Luni River, which flows into the Rann of Kutch. 
  • The Aravalli acts as the edge which separates the Thar desert from the plains and plateaus of eastern Rajasthan.
  • Formation:
    • It is part of the Aravalli-Delhi orogenic belt, which is a large and complex geological structure formed due to the collision of tectonic plates during the Proterozoic era.
    • It is part of the Indian Shield, that was formed from a series of cratonic collisions.
    • In ancient times, Aravalli were extremely high, but since have worn down almost completely by millions of years of weathering. 
  • The range is rich in mineral resources like copper, zinc, lead, and marble.
  • It is divided into two sections: the Sambhar-Sirohi ranges, taller and including Guru Shikhar; and the Sambhar-Khetri ranges, consisting of three ridges that are discontinuous.
  • There are several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries that fall within the belt of Aravalli Hills. Sariska National Park, Kumbhalgarh Sanctuary, and Mount Abu Sanctuary are among them.

Q1) What is a tectonic plate?

Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crust and uppermost mantle, together referred to as the lithosphere. The plates consist of two principal types of material: oceanic crust (sima) and continental crust (sial).These plates lie on top of a partially molten layer of rock called the asthenosphere. Due to the convection of the asthenosphere and lithosphere, the plates move relative to each other.

Source: Supreme Court Asks CEC To Examine Issues Related To Mining In Aravali Hills