Boreal Forest

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The wildfires pose threat to subarctic boreal forest. In the boreal forest, the most prevalent type of fire is a crown fire, which spreads quickly from treetop to treetop.

About Boreal Forest:

  • The boreal forest (or “taiga”) is the world’s largest land biome.
  • Boreal Ecozone:
    • It principally spans 8 countries:
    • Canada, China, Finland, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States.
  • Definition:
    • Boreal forests are defined as forests growing in high-latitude environments where freezing temperatures occur for 6 to 8 months and in which trees are capable of reaching a minimum height of 5 m and a canopy cover of 10%.
  • It is typically comprised of coniferous tree species such as pine, spruce and fir with some broadleaf species such as poplar and birch.
  • The circumboreal belt of forest represents about 30% of the global forest area, contains more surface freshwater than any other biome.
  • The forest -- named for Boreas, the Greek god of the north wind -- covers 10 percent of the world's land surface and has a decisive impact on the globe's northern oceans and overall climate.
  • The boreal forest is second only to the Amazon in terms of its vital role in ensuring the future of the planet.
  • The boreal forest holds twice as much carbon as all tropical forests combined, and also helps purify a massive amount of freshwater.


  • increasing forest fires,
  • the melting of permafrost,
  • intensifying insect infestations and
  • warming temperatures.

Drunken trees:

  • They are tilted sideways due to melting permafrost.
  • Eventually, the soil will completely erode away from the roots, and the trees will tumble.
  • This buckling and sinking is because of the degradation of the permafrost, ground that has remained frozen for at least two years in a row.


Source : The Hindu