What is the Earth System Model?

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The Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology is developing a first-for-India Earth System Model to improve climate forecasts and predict climate impacts.

About Earth System Model

  • It is open-source software that is designed to integrate the interactions of atmosphere, ocean, land, ice, and biosphere to estimate the state of regional and global climate under a wide variety of conditions.
  • Since it is based on numerical weather prediction and data assimilation, it can be used for accurate climate change predictions.
  • The Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology along with the Centre for Climate Change Research (CCCR), is developing this first-for-India Earth System Model.
  • Purpose: To improve its forecasts, facilitate long-term climate studies, and predict climate impacts in the coming years.
  • IITM-ESM incorporates earth system components in the Climate Forecast System (CFS) from National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP, USA), and transforms the CFS seasonal prediction model to a long-term climate mode,
  • Funding: An amount of ₹192.28 crores has been sanctioned under the Monsoon Convection, Clouds and Climate Change (MC4) sub scheme to develop the climate forecasting system.
  • The work on the model is currently underway and is expected to be completed by 2025.

Monsoon Convection, Clouds and Climate Change (MC4) sub scheme

  • It was envisioned to improve the observational database and climate models for enhanced predictive understanding of monsoonal precipitation changes and their impacts in a warming environment.
  • The overarching goal of MC4 is to describe better and quantify interactions among monsoon dynamics, clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and the water cycle in a changing climate.
  • Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES)

Q1) What is Open source software?

It is software that is distributed with its source code, making it available for use, modification, and distribution with its original rights.

Source: India developing a new Earth system model to improve forecasts, track climate crisis impacts