Facts about Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve

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Overview:

The Tamil Nadu Forest Department recently commenced a three-day-long elephant census at Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve.

About Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve

  • Location:
    • It is located at the junction of the Eastern and Western Ghats in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, in the Erode District of Tamil Nadu.
    • Its area is contiguous with the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Bandipur Tiger Reserve (Karnataka), and Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve and Wildlife Sanctuary (Karnataka). 
  • Together, these reserves—forming the Nilgiris biosphere landscape — have the biggest tiger population in the world, at over 280 tigers.
  • It was declared a tiger reserve in 2013. 
  • It covers an area of 1,411.6 sq km and forms a vital link between the Eastern and Western Ghats, creating a continuous habitat for tigers and other wildlife.
  • Terrain: It is hilly and undulated, with an altitude ranging between 750m and 1649m.
  • Climate:
    • It is subtropical and dry.
    • The summers are hot and dry; the monsoons are wet and cooler, with river flooding.
  • Rivers: Some of the prominent rivers in the region include the Bhavani, Moyar, and Noyyal rivers.
  • Tribal Communities: It is home to several indigenous tribal communities, including the Irula and Kurumba tribes.
  • Flora:
    • The vegetation consists of southern tropical dry thorn forests, mixed deciduous forests, semi-evergreen forests, and Riparian forests.
    • Around 700 species of flora have been found in the sanctuary, where bamboos are the predominant species of vegetation.
  • Fauna:
    • The major species are Elephant, Tiger, Panther, Sloth bear, Gaur, Black Buck, Spotted deer, Wild boar, Black napped hare, Common langur, Striped neck mongoose, and Bonnet macaque.
    • It is home to some rare andendangered species, such as the grizzled giant squirrel, the Nilgiri tahr, the Nilgiri langur, and the four-horned antelope.

Q1: What is a Tiger Reserve?

Tiger Reserve is a legally declared protected area dedicated to the conservation of striped big cats. A tiger reserve, on the other hand, could be a national park or wildlife sanctuary. The Sariska Tiger Reserve, for example, is also a national park.

Source: Elephant census begins at Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu