India's Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) recently urged Indian nationals to leave Niger, following a military coup that deposed the democratically elected President.
- Niger, officially the Republic of Niger, is a landlocked sub-Saharan country in western Africa.
- Bordering Countries: It is bounded on the northwest by Algeria, on the northeast by Libya, on the east by Chad, on the south by Nigeria and Benin, and on the west by Burkina Faso and Mali.
- The country takes its name from the Niger River, which flows through the southwestern part of its territory.
- Capital: Niamey
- The official language of Niger is French, due to its colonial history.
- The main national languages are Arabic, Djerma-Sonhraï, Gourmantchéma, Hausa, Kanouri, Fulfuldé, Tamacheq and Toubou.
- Relief: It tends to monotony in its features, is intersected by numerous depressions, and is dominated by arid highlands in the north.
- Niger gained independence from French colonial rule on August 3, 1960.
- Prior to independence, it was a part of French West Africa.
- Political System:
- It is a semi-presidential republic with a multi-party system.
- The President is the head of state and holds significant executive powers.
- The Prime Minister is the head of government and is appointed by the president.
Q1) What is a Republic?
A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" and the head of state is an elected or appointed president, rather than a hereditary monarch. In a republic, the people, either directly or through their elected representatives, hold the ultimate authority and power. The principles and structures of a republic can vary widely depending on the specific constitution and laws of the country.