Key Facts about Papua New Guinea

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Dozens of men have been killed in a fresh outbreak of tribal violence in the remote highlands of Papua New Guinea recently.

About Papua New Guinea

  • Location: It is an island country that lies in the south-western Pacific.
  • It includes the eastern half of New Guinea (the world’s second largest island) and many small offshore islands.
  • Neighbours: Indonesia to the west, Australia to the south, and the Solomon Islands to the south-east.
  • Capital: Port Moresby
  • Terrain: It is mainly mountainous but has low-lying plains in southern New Guinea.
  • The islands that constitute Papua New Guinea were settled over a period of 40,000 years by a mixture of peoples who are generally referred to as Melanesians.
  • Language:
    • English is the main language of government and commerce. In most everyday contexts, the most widely spoken language is Tok Pisin. 
    • Linguistically, it is the world's most diverse country, with more than 800 languages.
  • Religion: The majority of Papua New Guinea’s people are at least nominally Christian.
  • Government:
    • Papua New Guinea became self-governing on December 1, 1973, and achieved independence on September 16, 1975.
    • The country is a constitutional monarchy and a member of the Commonwealth.
    • The British monarch, represented by a governor-general, is head of state, and the Prime Minister is head of government.

Q1) What is a constitutional monarchy?

It is a system of government in which a monarch shares power with a constitutionally organized government. The monarch may be the de facto head of state or a purely ceremonial leader. The constitution allocates the rest of the government’s power to the legislature and judiciary. Britain became a constitutional monarchy under the Whigs. Other constitutional monarchies include Belgium, Cambodia, Jordan, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Thailand.

Source: Police say 53 men massacred in Papua New Guinea tribal violence