Agriculture Optional Coaching

by Vajiram & Ravi


04:49 PM

Date of Commencement

25th June 2024




20 Weeks


Rs. 54,000 (Incl. GST)

Course Time

5:30 PM to 08:00 PM

Agriculture Optional Coaching

About UPSC Agriculture Optional

Agriculture is regarded as a technical subject and is ideal for those with an interest in farming and other agricultural pursuits. Additionally, the majority of the optional subject’s questions are direct and predictable, hence guarantees a good result. The syllabus is the key benefit of selecting Agriculture as an optional subject. Given the proper approach and determination, it offers a manageable syllabus and can be completed in 3–4 months, which gives students the opportunity to revise more.

Conducted by Mr.H S Kumar and Mr.B S Kumar, our Agriculture Optional Classes help candidates prepare for the Mains in a systematic and effective manner. It offers a variety of resources, such as comprehensive study materials, and answer writing practise.

Agriculture has a similarity to botany and zoology, which is another benefit. If an aspirant previously studied botany or zoology, choosing agriculture optional may be advantageous for them. Agriculture Paper II and Botany are highly correlated. As there seems to be a good amount of overlap between Agriculture's syllabus and Mains General Studies III's syllabus, choosing agriculture as an optional subject can provide additional advantages.

The agriculture optional subject is conceptually driven and pragmatic in nature, which favours students who have an analytical mind. When an aspirant makes efficient use of numerous charts, graphs, tables, and drawings in addition to a strong foundation, their chances of scoring highly increase. 


Syllabus Covered in Agriculture Optional Coaching

Paper I:

  • Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Agroecology, cropping pattern as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals and humans. Climate change – international conventions and global initiatives. Greenhouse effect and global warming. Advance tools for ecosystem analysis – Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
  • Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts of various cropping and farming systems. Organic and Precision farming. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops.
  • Important features and scope of various types of forestry plantations such as social forestry, agroforestry, and natural forests. Propagation of forest plants. Forest products. Agroforestry and value addition. Conservation of forest flora and fauna.
  • Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplications; cultural, biological, and chemical control of weeds. Soil- physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes and factors of soil formation. Soils of India, Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants. Principles of soil fertility, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations, integrated nutrient management. Biofertilizers. Losses of nitrogen in the soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, and nitrogen fixation in soils. Efficient phosphorus and potassium use. Problem soils and their reclamation. Soil factors affecting greenhouse gas emission.
  • Soil conservation, integrated watershed management. Soil erosion and its management. Dryland agriculture and its problems. Technology for stabilizing agriculture production in rainfed areas. Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing runoff losses of irrigation water. Rainwater harvesting. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of waterlogged soils, quality of irrigation water, the effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution. Irrigation projects in India.
  • Farm management, scope, importance and characteristics, farm planning. Optimum resource use and budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems. Marketing management – strategies for development, market intelligence. Price fluctuations and their cost; role of cooperatives in agricultural economy; types and systems of farming and factors affecting them. Agricultural price policy. Crop Insurance.
  • Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes, socio-economic survey and status of big, small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers. Training programmes for extension workers. Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in the dissemination of Agricultural technologies. Non-Government Organizations (NGO) and self-help group approach for rural development.

Paper II:

  • Cell structure, function and cell cycle. Synthesis, structure and function of genetic material. Laws of heredity. Chromosome structure, chromosomal aberrations, linkage and cross-over, and their significance in recombination breeding. Polyploidy, euploids and aneuploids. Mutations – and their role in crop improvement. Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement. Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked, sex-influenced and sex-limited characters.
  • History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selfing and crossing techniques. Origin, evolution and domestication of crop plants, center of origin, law of homologous series, crop genetic resources conservation and utilization. Application of principles of plant breeding, improvement of crop plants. Molecular markers and their application in plant improvement. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and recurrent selections, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding. Heterosis and its exploitation. Somatic hybridization. Breeding for disease and pest resistance. Role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Role of genetic engineering and biotechnology in crop improvement. Genetically modified crop plants.
  • Seed production and processing technologies. Seed certification, seed testing and storage. DNA fingerprinting and seed registration. Role of public and private sectors in seed production and marketing. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues, WTO issues and its impact on Agriculture.
  • Principles of Plant Physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, translocation and metabolism of nutrients. Soil – water- plant relationship.
  • Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis- modern concepts and factors affecting the process, aerobic and anaerobic respiration; C3, C4 and CAM mechanisms. Carbohydrates, protein and fat metabolism. Growth and development; photoperiodism and vernalization. Plant growth substances and their role in crop production. Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy. Stress physiology – draught, salt and water stress.
  • Major fruits, plantation crops, vegetables, spices and flower crops. Package practices of major horticultural crops. Protected cultivation and high-tech horticulture. Post-harvest technology and value addition of fruits and vegetables. Landscaping and commercial floriculture. Medicinal and aromatic plants. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition.
  • Diagnosis of pests and diseases of field crops, vegetables, orchard and plantation crops and their economic importance. Classification of pests and diseases and their management. Integrated pest and disease management. Storage pests and their management. Biological control of pests and diseases. Epidemiology and forecasting of major crop pests and diseases. Plant quarantine measures. Pesticides, their formulation and modes of action.
  • Food production and consumption trends in India. Food security and growing population – vision 2020. Reasons for grain surplus. National and international food policies. Production, procurement, and distribution constraints. Availability of food grains, per capita expenditure on food. Trends in poverty, Public Distribution System and Below Poverty Line population, Targeted Public Distribution System (PDS), policy implementation in context to globalization. Processing constraints. Relation of food production to National Dietary Guidelines and food consumption pattern. Food based dietary approaches to eliminate hunger. Nutrient deficiency – Micronutrient deficiency: Protein Energy Malnutrition or Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PEM or PCM), Micro nutrient deficiency and HRD in context of work capacity of women and children. Food grain productivity and food security.

Preparation Tips for UPSC Agriculture Optional

Students should first understand the UPSC Agriculture optional syllabus. This will help to identify the topics aspirants need to cover and their weightage in the examination. The questions are repetitive and direct and Once notes are made, they can be revised easily in less time. Paper 1 has very general questions and preparing for the same requires comparatively less time, but paper 2 has some science-based technical topics which require deep understanding, so students can plan their preparation accordingly. In Subjects like Horticulture, it is recommended that you first finish relatively smaller topics like preservation, marketing, the role of fruit in nutrition etc before taking up the cultivation practice of fruits and vegetables. The syllabus is almost static with concise study material, once understood will be forever. This can save time for a candidate to make time available for general studies. Candidates are requested to revise notes, writing the keywords and examples of each unit as per the syllabus. Regularly practice answer writing to improve your ability to explain concepts concisely and clearly. Use previous years' question papers to practice answering questions in a time-bound manner. Remember that the key to success in Agriculture optional is dedication and consistent preparation.

Features of Agriculture Optional Subject Programme

  • Class Schedule: 2.5-hour sessions, 6 days a week.
  • Comprehensive Syllabus Coverage: Complete coverage of Optional Subject Paper I & II through detailed lectures.
  • Clarity in Concepts: Complex terms and concepts are explained in a clear, easy-to-understand manner.
  • Practical Examples: Everyday examples are used to ensure students not only grasp concepts but can also articulate and write effectively about them.
  • Answer Writing Practice: Integrated answer writing practice throughout the course duration.
  • Regular Class Tests: Frequent tests followed by focused discussions and improvement suggestions.
  • Study Materials: Comprehensive handouts and notes with clear explanations and up-to-date information.
  • Accessibility: Classes are available in both Classroom and Live-Online formats, offering flexibility and convenience for all students.


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